“The curriculum content and learning experiences should be negotiated between learners, teachers, and
Needs-analysis is the starting point in the process of syllabus design
in ESP. Needs analysis is seen as as a potential basis for ESP course development and design.
One important feature in ESP is course design which is basically based on need analysis.
Several studies conducted on NA have used various methods and procedures for data-gathering (e.g., Long, 2005; Lett, 2005; Jasso-Aguilar, 2005; Gilabert, 2005; Cowling, 2007) and they reflect more valuable feedback on the importance of NA. Although these studies have revealed the positive advantages of NA in ESP, NA has been come under fierce criticisms (Basturkmen, 2006:19/20).
Needs analysis would help ESP researchers identify the learner’s needs efficiently and practically.
Ta3dil: needs analysis model covering all
aspects of the nine approaches of needs analysis, which aims to gather the needs of the relevant
stakeholders for effective ESP course development.
What needs analysis establishes
language information about
learners’ needs from course
language learning needs
professional information about learners
how to communicate in
the target situation
Professional information about learners – the tasks and activities that the learners
will be using English for. This information links to the target situation analysis
approach, which will reveal objective needs.
??Personal information about learners – are the factors that may affect the way the
learners learn such as their previous learning experiences, cultural information,
reasons for attending the course and the expectations regarding it, and attitude
toward the English course. This personal information covers the present situation
analysis approach, which will reveal wants, means, and subjective needs.
??Language information about the target situations – is what the learners’ current
skills and language use are. The language information covers the present situation
analysis approaches, which will enable the assessment of the learners’ difficulties
??The learners’ lacks – or the gap between the learners’ current skills an
activities that the learners are using English skills. This information covers the
deficiency analysis and present situation analysis approaches.
??Language learning needs – which are effective ways of learning the skills and
language that the learners lack. This information covers learning needs
approaches such as learning styles and learning strategies.
??How to communicate in the target situation – refers to communication information
about the learners when they use the English language and skills in the target
situation. This information covers register analysis, discourse analysis, and genre
??Learners’ needs from the course – this information covers learning needs
Environmental situations – the information about how and where the course will
be run. This information covers the means analysis approach.
Dudley-Evans and St. John’s (1998) needs analysis model has been adopted in various
disciplines. However, the literature shows that little research has been carried out on all of the
factors and approaches of this complete needs analysis model and all of the relevant
stakeholders. For example, Adzmi et al. (2009) employed the model to explore the perceptions
of students, teachers, and ESP teachers about the students’ language deficiencies and their
needs in the industrial design area.
a needs analysis is important for an ESP course to determine which individual language skills are needed and the ESP course will be developed afterwards to meet the learners’ needs.
Finding out about and analyzing the needs of the students is vital in ESP teaching. In fact one of the main contributions of ESP to the wider world of English Language Teaching has been the development of thorough needs analysis.
the concern in ESP is with the needs of
Voc: the most characteristic feature of ESP course design-needs analysis.
with the course of time.
However, the hypothesis of this research is: conducting a Needs
Analysis on students studying ESP is of considerable importance
to arrive at their real needs and find a suitable design for the
course to enhance their learning and acceptance of the course.
meet the needs of his learners that are changing with time.
An ongoing NA is highly recommended for students since the
aim of an ESP program is to cope with the changing needs of the
learners. It is important to include “an on going system of
evaluation, aiming to provide information on how the program
itself can be improved through the introduction of changes that is
viewed necessary”(Ouakrime, 1997: 16).
Needs analysis is, thus, suggested to be used as a technique to
help in the ESP course design and support the learning of English
for specific purposes. A technique that is supposed to be suitable if
applied to find out the changing needs of learners, their lacks and
wants, which can help in designing a course that is of benefit and
interest to learners, and a means through which the boredom and
passivity of learners during the class changes to be interest and
positivity towards learning ESP as a subject that is of benefit and
importance to their future career.
Needs analysis enhances the learners’ benefit of the ESP course
Knowing the needs, wants, and lacks of learners of ESP is beneficial in that it can participate
in approving their level when these needs are made use of to arrive at a plan for the course that serves these needs and attracts the interests and attention of students which will naturally
results in better learning than if these needs are ignored.
Needs Analysis can motivate the learners when they feel that their
view and needs are seriously treated to help them find what they
need in the course in a suitable, beneficiary, and interesting way
through which they will not neglect the course or consider it a waste
1. Teachers of ESP are advised to conduct a Needs Analysis
process through which they can design a course and take into
account the changing needs, wants, and lacks of their learners.
2. Learners are advised to be more active and participate in the
discussions during the class period. They should take the
responsibility of their own learning rather than saying that the
subject is boring or not important. This comes in cooperation with
the teacher who will find motivating strategies to introduce the
3.To motivate the learners, the teacher consequently must adopt a
learner centered activities where the learners can participate
actively in their own learning.
4. The learning institution (the college or university) can give the
teachers the chance to change the course material in a way that
fosters their students’ learning with a regular supervision of the
department or college to arrive at good results. Naturally, the
teachers must arrive at new and promising results depending on
the ongoing NA that is documented and made every two or three
years for instance.
5. Students must be handed course books to be capable of
preparing the material required and cope with the information
presented at the lecture.
6.To develop ESP courses for high schools in an attempt to
customize the students with this relatively new language and
these courses. These courses occupy a small part of the course
during the year.
are discussed from different angles and the theoretical basis of needs analysis
is derived from the ideas of communicative competence
the importance of needs analysis focus on its roles as a
starting point or a guide for course design, syllabus design, materials selection,
assessment or even classroom activities.
needs analysis study investigates those important aspects of the course to which much needs is felt by the learners. In literature, needs
analysis is referred to as “the cornerstone of ESP” and its proper application could result into a “focused course”
(Dudley-Evans & St John, 1998, p.121). It is also considered as the starting point of adopting a framework for ESP
course design with the aim of highlighting all stakeholders’ view in the process of curriculum development, course
and syllabus design, and evaluation of the effectiveness and efficiency of the implementation of the needs-based
course (Chostelidou, 2010).
it would be
beneficial to run a needs analysis to investigate the expectations and the purposes of the ESP learners, and to
evaluate the effectiveness of the ESP courses in order to develop or evaluate a curriculum.
realized that ESP courses were not as effective as it was supposed to be and did not meet the learners’ needs.
The importance of data collection procedure with the aim of identifying the needs of the target and learning
situation is also considered as an essential stage in developing ESP course design (West, 1994, 1997; Dudley-Evans
& St. John, 1998).
Needs analysis is considered to be the cornerstone of English for Specific Purposes(ESP). The concept of Needs analysis has been different along the decades. At the initial stages of ESP( the 1960s and early 1970s), needs analysis consisted in assessing the communicative needs of the learners and the techniques of achieving specific teaching objectives. Nowadays, the tasks of needs analysis is much more complex: it aims at collecting information about the
learners and at defining the target situation and environment of studying ESP.
Because ESP courses are based on needs analysis, the learning objectives are more obvious than would be in
the case of general ESL courses and it can be assumed that students will be more highly motivated in learning about
topics and texts which are related to their study or work areas.
In language teaching and language program design, needs analysis is the process of determining the needs for which a learner or group of learners require a language and arranging the needs according to priorities. Needs assessment makes use of both subjective and objective needs (Richard et al, 2002, p. 353). Therefore, needs analysis has become an integral element of the field ESP as the basis for designing esp course. (Dudley-Evans.1991)
needs analysis contributes in the elaboration of ESP course.
Needs Analysis (NA) has been acknowledged by many scholars and authors as the cornerstone of ESP (e.g.Munby 1978; Hutchinson and Waters 1987; Robinson 1991; West, 1994; Dudley-Evans and St. John, 1998). NA main objective is to determine the type of content, materials and methods in ESP course. Furthermore, it describes the required proficiency level of learners and the language might be used.
According to West (1994) NA is “essentially a pragmatic activity focused on specific situations although grounded on general theories, such as the nature of language and curriculum”. The scholar here has explained the process as a pragmatic activity that aims at identifying the learner’s needs and forming language curriculum theories. In addition Richards et al. (2002, p. 353-354) define NA as being “the process of determining the needs for which a learner or group of learners requires a language and arranging the needs according to priorities”. Therefore, NA provides course designers and ESP practitioners a clear vision about the learners’ requirements and reasons of learning the course.
Conclusion of 2
Conducting needs analysis before carrying out ESP course is necessary to collect a wide range of information about learners who are viewed as central agents in the process. The main purpose of needs analysis is to improve ESP programmes. Needs-analysis should be seen as an indispensable aspect of ESP syllabus design in order to link the present students’ academic needs with their needs in their prospective employment.
needs analysis is
essential in two different ways; (I ) as a guide in setting broad goals, and (2) as a guide in the learning process.
Savage and Storer (1992) discusses the
role that learners can have in the process of needs assessment. Learners can contribute
substantially to the course if they are actively involved at all stages of the course
design; at the initial, during, and final stages of course evaluation.
Speaking about the importance of needs analysis leads to shed the light on its basic function and contribution in the design of courses, syllabuses, and teaching materials/activities. NA is considered as a prerequisite in any course design (Richterich and Chancerel, 1987).Berwick (1989) claims that needs assessment, which requires learners’ involvement, .is important for decision planners to design the course where Assessment of a course.
Hawkey(1980) states that needs analysis is a tool for designing courses. That is a “language training situation with reasonably specific occupational or educational objectives involving a reasonably homogeneous group of learners” (p.81). Course designers can carry out specific language skills, forms, and functions of courses from the obtained information of learner’s needs.
Implementing needs analysis is important because it enables the researcher to explain assumptions regarding the way to design materials and course content to suit learner’s needs.
Needs analysis would help ESP researchers identify the learner’s needs efficiently and practically.
NA allows ESP practitioners to make decision on the type of the course, syllabus, materials, methodology, tests, and evaluation.
NA enables the teacher to gather information about
his learners’ wants, lacks, and needs to be able to prepare for the
Needs Analysis helps to give the teachers a clear view of students
needs, wants, and lacks and this is important to find out a better
idea about the techniques and strategies he can adopt to enhance
the learners’ benefit of the ESP course.
Conclusion of 3
Needs-analysis involves not only the students but also all
parties in the educational system and relevant user institutions that ultimately employ