Site Loader

?????????? ????????????
????? ???????? ?????????? ??? ????????????? «?????????? & ??????????» ??????????« ???????? ??? ???????? ???? ??????????»19951701790065
??????????? ???????
?????? ????????
????: «?????????? ??? ??????? ??? ?????????? ??? ???????? ????????????? ??? ???????????? ??? ?????????????? ??????????? ??? ????? ??????? ????????? ?? ??? ?????????? ???? ???????»
?????????: ????????? ?. ??????
????:
????? 2018
???????? ?? ?????? ???? ????? ?? ????????? ?? ??????? ???, ???????????? ??? ???????? ???????.AbstractThis research seeks to highlight the importance
. In particular, it aims to explore the attitudes and perceptions of the s, following a quantitative analysis.

??????????? TOC o “1-3” h z u

????????1.?????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????, ?? ????????? ??? ??????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ????????????? ???? ?????????? ??? ???????? ???? ?????? ??? ?????????? ?????. ?????????, ????, ?????? ?? ???????? ??? ?? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ? ??????????????? ??? ???????? ???? ???????? ?????? ????? ??? ????????. ?? ??????? ???? ??????? ?????? ??? ???? ?????????? ??????????? ?? ??? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ???? ??? ????????? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ???????????. ? ????????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ???? ?????? ??? ????????????? ???????, ??????????? ??? ????????? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ???????, ???????? ??? ??? ???????? ???? ?????? ?????????? ??? ???????????, ??????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????????.

??? ?????????? ????????? ??? ?????? ???? , ?? ?????? ??? ????????????? ????????? ??? ??????? ????????? ??? ????????? ?????? ????????? ????????????? ??????????, ????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ????? ?? ?? ?????????? ??? ??? ????????????? ??? ????????????? ??????????. ? ??????? ???????????? ???? ?? ??????????? ??????? ?????????????? ????????????? ??????? ?? ??? ????????????? ??? ?????????????? ???????? ??? ??? ????? ??? ?????? ?? ?? ????????? ??? ???????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ??? ????????????? ??????????.
??????? ???? ????????????? ????, ? ??????? ???? ???????? ?? ??????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ??? ???????? ????????????? ???????????? ??? ?????????????? ??????????? ??? ??????? ??????? ???? ?????????? ??? ?????????????? ???????? ???? ???????? ??? ??????????? ??? ????????.

2. ???????????? ??????????? ???? ?????????
? ???? ???????? ?????????? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ??? ???????? ????????, ????????????? ??? ??????? ?????????? ????????? (????????????,2005). ?? ???? ??? ????????? ??? ??????????? ??? ???????????? ???? ???? ????? ???????? ??? ??????? ???????, ???? ??????? ?????????? ???? ???? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ???????? ?????????? ??? ????????????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ???? ???????? ??????? ??? ?? ?????? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ??????? (?????, 2008).

? ?????? (2002) ?????? ?? ???????? ???? ?????????? ?? ??? ??????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ???? ?????????? ????????????? ??? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ?????????????? ??? ?????? ??? ???????????? ??? ????????? ?????? ????????????? ??????????.

?? ????????? ??? ??????? ??? ???? ????? ????? ??? ?????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ????????????? ??? ?????????? ?????????. ?? ????? ???? ???????????? ????? ????????????, ???? ? ?????? ??? ???? ?????? ?? ????????? ??????. ? ??????? ???? ?????? ??????????? ?? ???????? ???? ????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ??? ??????? ???? ?????? ??????? (??????, 2000). ??????? ?? ??? Chemers (1997), ?????? ????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ???? ??? ????? ?? ????? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ?? ??????? ??? ?????, ??? ?? ???????? ??? ????? ?????. ??????, ?? Leithwood ??? Riehl (2003) ????????? ?? ?????? ?? ?????????? ???? ??? ????? ?? ????? ????????????? ?? ?????? ??? ???????? ???????, ??????? ?????????? ???? ????????? ?? ????? ??? ???????? ??????.

?? ???? ????????? ????????? ?? ??? ?????????? ??? ???????? ???? ??? ???? ???????? ?????? ???? ??? ??? ????? ???????????? ??? ????? ??? ????????????? ?????????? ??? ??????????. ????????? ??????? (?????, 2000: Cammack & Phillips, 2002: Anastasaki, 2009: Strachan, et al., 2007: Aladejana et ah, 2005) ????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ??? ????? ???? ??? ????????????? ???? ??? ??? ???? ????????????? ??????? ??? ????????. ? ????????? ??? ???????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ????? ???? ????????????. ? ?????????? ?? ????? ????????, ???? ??? ???? ??????? ??? ????????? ?????????? ??? ?? ????????? ????.
3. ???? ????????? ??????? ??????? ????? ????????? ?? ???? ?????? ???????. ??? ????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ?????????, ??? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ??? ??? ????????????? ?????, ??? ?? ????????? ??????? ??? ???????? ??????????? ??? ?? ???????????? ??? ?? ???????????.
?? ????? ???????? ??? ?????? ?????? ???????????? ??? ?????? ????????? ??? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ???? ????????????, ????????????? ??? ??? ???????????? ??? ???????.

?? ??????? ???????? ??? ?????? ?????? ???????????? ?? ????????????? ??????????. ??????????, ??? ???????? ???? ??????? ??????? ?? ????? ??????? ??? ??????????? ?? ?? ??????? ???????????.

?? ????? ???????? ???????????? ?? . ??????? ????????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ??.

??????, ?????????? ???? ????????????.

???????????? ??????? ????? ??? ?? ???? ???.

?? ??????? ????? ???????????? ?? ?????????? ????? ??? ???????? ??? ??????????? ??? ?? ???? ????????? ????????:
?? ??????? ???????? , ???? ??????? ??? ????????? ??? ???????????? ??? ??? ????????? ??? ???????? ???????.

?? ?????? ????????, ???? ?????????????? ?? ???????????? ??? ???????. ? ??????? – ???????? ??? ????????????? ????? ??????? ??? ???? ????????. ?? ?????? ???????? ???? ???????? ?? ?????? ???????????? ??? ?? ????????? ??? ????????? ??????.

?? ????? ????? ??????????? ??? ?? ???????????? ??? ?? ????????? ?? ????? ???????? ?? ?????????????? ??? ?????? ??? ?? ?????????? ??? ??????? ??? ??? ??? ?? ????????? ??? ?????????? ?? ???????????? ??? ??????? .4. ????????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ????????? ?? ??????? ??? ?????? ??????????? ??? ????? ?????????, ????? ?? ??????? ??? ??????, ?? ???? ??????? ?? ???????? ?? ????? ???. ???? ?????? ????????? ????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ??? ?? ?????? ?????, ?? ?? ???????????? ??? ??? ???? ?????????? ??? ?????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ?? ???????????? ???????.

????? ???? ?????????-???? ??? ????????????? ????????? ??? ????????????? ????????????? ???????????? ??? ??? ???? ?????????? ??? ??? ???????? ????. ?? ????????? ??? ????????????? ???????????? ?? ???? ??????????? ??? ??? ?????????? ???, ???? ???? ??????.

????? ??? ?????? ????????? ?????? ???? ?????? ??? ??? ??? ????? ???, ??? ??? ??? ???? ?? ?????????? ??? ?? ???????? ?????????? ?? ???? ??? ??? ??????????.

????? ?????: ????????? ??????????

???????? ?????? ???????????? ??? ???????1.????????2.?????????? ??? ??????????????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ??? ????? ??? ???????? ???? ?????????? ???? ??????, ????????????? ??? ????? ???? ????? ? ????????? ???? ??? ?????? ????? ????????? ??? ?????? ???? ?????? ???????? ??? ?????????????? ?????????, ????????? ????? ?????? ??? ???????????.

? ??????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ??? ?? ??? ???????????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ??? ??? ???????? ??? ????? ??? ???????? ???? ???????? ??? ???????? ???????, ?????? ??????? ?????? ???, ?? ??????? ??? ?? ????????????? ??? ???? ?? ?????????????, ???? ??? ????? ???, ??? ????? ????? ???????? ???????,
? ??????? ???????? ??? ??? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ??? ??? ????? ???????? ???????????. ??????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ???? ?????? ? ???? ??????? ??? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ?? ??????????? ?? ????? ????? ???? ?????????? ????????????? ??? ??? ???????????? ?????? (Sachs & Blackmore, 1998).

??? ?? ???????? ????????? ?????? ? ?????????????? ????????? ?? ???? ?????????? ??? ???? ?????? ??? ?? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ??? ???????????? ?????????? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ????????????? ?????????? ??? ??? ???? ??????????? ? ????????? ??? ???? ??? ???????? (??????????? ??? ????????????? ??????????), ?? ???? ??? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ??? ?????????? ???????.

? ?????????? ????? ??? ????????? ???????? ??? ??? ???????????? ??? ??????? ???, ? ????? ???? ????? ?? ???????? – ???? ??? ??????? ??? ??????? ???????? ???????????????- ?? ??? ????? ??? ????????? ??? ??????????? ??? ??????? ??? ???????? ???? ?????? ??????? ??? ????? ???????????? ?? ?? ???? ?????????, ?? ???????, ??? ????????? ??? ??? ?????????????? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ?????????????.
3.?????? ??? ??????? ??? ?????????? ??????????????? ??? ???????? ??????? ???????? ? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ??? ??????? ??? ?????????????.

?? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ????? ?? ????:
?.?.1.????? ?????????? ???????????? ?? ?????? ??????? ??? ???????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ???? ???? ??????????;
?.?.2 ????? ????? ?? ?????????? ??? ???????? ????????????? ??????? ??? ??????? ???? ?? ?????? ???????;
?.?.3 ????? ????? ?? ?????????? ??? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ?? ???;
?.?.4. ????? ????? ?? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ?????? (? ????????) ?? ????? ???? ???????????? ????????? ??? ??? ????? ??? ?????????????? ?????????? ??? ????????;
?.?.5. ????? ????? ?? ?????????? ??? ????????????? ????????? ?? ??? ????? ??? ?? ????????? ??? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ??? ???? ?????????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ????????;
?.?.6. ??????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ??? ??????;
?.?.7. ??????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ??? ???????;
?.?.8. ? ?????? ??? ?????????? ??? ????????????? ?? ???? ??;
?.?.9. ? ?????? ??? ?????????? ??? ????????????? ?? ????;
?.?.10. ????? ????? ?? ?????????? ??? ????????????? ????????? ?? ?? ??;
4.???????????? ???????
?? ????????? ?????? ? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ?? ????????????? ????????? ???? ???? ???? ??? ???????????, ????? ?? ????????? ??????? ??? ? ????? ??? ??? ???? ????? ???? ????????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ???????????? ??? ?????????? ????? (Tuckman, 1988; Hitchcock & Hughes, 1995;Hargreaves, 1996; Verma & Mallick, 1999; Altricher, Posch & Somekh, 2001;????????, 2002).? ???????????? ??????, ???? ????????????? ??? ??????? ???????????, ????????? ??? ???????? ??? ????????? ??? ??????????? (Tuckman, 1988; Hitchcock & Hughes, 1995; Altricher, Posch & Somekh, 2001). 
??? ???? ???? ?? ??????? ??? ????? ????????? ??? ???????? ??? ???????? ??????? ??? ??? ????????? ???????????? ??? ? ????????? ????? ??? ??? ????? ??? ????????, ???? ????? ????????????? ?????????? ?? ????? ??? ????????.

???????????, ??? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????????, ????? ????????? ? ?????? ???? ???????? ???????, ???? ???? ?? ????? ????????? ??? ??????? ??? ?????????? ??? ????????????? ????????? ?? ???? ?????? ??? ????????? ?? ?????? ? ?? ??? ?????? ???????????? ??? ?????? ???????. ?? ????????? ??????? ????? ??????? ?? ???????????? ??? ?? ???????????? ??? ???????. ? ??????? ??????, ??? ???????????? ???? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ????????????? ??? ??? ?????? ????????? ???? ?????????? ??? ??? ????????? ???? ?????? ??? ??? ???????? ?????????????? ???? ??? ??? ?????????? ??? ??????? ????.

?????????, ???? ??? ??? ???????????? ??????, ?? ?????????? ????????? ??? ????? ????????, ????? ??? ??????? ??????, ????? ????????? ????????? ??? ??? ?????? ???????????? ???????? ?? ???????? ?????????????? ??? ??? ?????????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ??????? ??? ??????????? .

5. ????????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????, ??? ?? ???????????? ?????, ????? ????????? ????????? ??? ?????????, ??? ??? ??????. ? ?????? ????? ?????, ??? ? ?????????? ???????? ??? ????? ??? ??????????? ??? ??? ???????? ??? ?????????? ??? ???? ??? ????? ??? ???????? ???????. ?????????? ?????????? ?? ???? ??? ????????? ??? ????? ? ??????? ???????????? ?????? ???? ??????????? ??? ????????????? ??????????, ? ??????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ??? ????????, ????? ??? ? ????????? ??? ????????? ??? ?????????? ????????, ??????? ??? ????????????.

? ???????? ?????, ??? ????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ???? ??? ????????? ???? ??? ????????? ??? ???????? ??? ????? ??????? ?? ???????? ?????? ???, ????? ??????????? ?? ??????????????? ??? ????? ????????? ???????, ???? ???? ??? ?????????? ?’ ???? ??? ????????? ????? ?? ???????? ?????? ?? ?? ????? ???????????? ????? (?? ??????), ?????????? ??? ?????? ?????????.
6. ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ??? ??????? ??????????????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ??????????????, ???????????? ?? ???????? ?????????????? ???????????? ??? ?????????????? ??????????? ???????? ??? ????? ???????. ?? ???????????? ??? ??????? ??? ?????????? ???? ???? ??? ??? ????? ??? ????????? ?????????? ??? ???????????????.

7.??????????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ??? ?? ???????? ??? ??????? ??? ??????????????? ????? ?????? ?????????, ???????? ??????? ??????????? ???? ?????? .? ??????? ?????? ????? ??????????? ??? ???? ?? ????? ??? ????????? ??? ????????? ????? ????????? ???????????????. ????????? ??? ???????????, ??? ???????, ??? ??????? (Cross sectional studies) ??? ??????????? ?? ???????????? ??? ???????? ???? ??? ???? ??? ??? ?????? ?? ??????????? ? ??????????? ??? ????????????? ??? ?????.

8.?????????? ???????????????????? ??? ?? ?????? ???????????? ???? ??? ??? ???? ???????, ??? ????? ?????? ? ????????? ??? ?????? ????????????? ??? ?? ?????? ??? ?????????. ?????? ????, ????? ??????? ?? ????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ??? ??????????.

???????? ???????
????????????? ??????????1. ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ??? ??????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ??? ???? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ???? ????????????????? ??? ???????? ??? ??? ???????? ??? ?????????.
??? ????????????, ????????????? ??? ????? ?? ??? ????? ? ???????? ?????????????? ???????????? ???? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ??? ??? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ??? ??? ????? ??? ??? ??????????????? ? ?????? ???????? ???? ??????????. ?????????? ?? ????? ??? ???? ??????? ???????????? ?? ???????? ???? ?????????? ??? ?????? ??????? ??? ???????.

???????????, ??? ???????? ???? ??????????? ? ??????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ??? ???????????? ??????? ??? ????? ??????????????? ?? ????? ?? ???????????? ???? ??????????.

2. ????????????? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ???? ????????????????? ??? ???????? ??? ??? ???????? ??? ?????????
?????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ?? ???????????? ????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ???? ?????? ???? ???? ??? ?????? ??? ??????????? (Coleman, 2007) ????? ? ?????????? «????», ???????? ??? ????????? ????????? ?????????????? ??? ??????? ??? ???????????? ????? ??? ????????? ??? ??????????? (Blackmore, 2002
??? ?????? ??? Hill (1994) ??????????? ??? ?????? ??? ???? ??????? ??? ?????????? ??? ????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??? ????????????? ?????, ?? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ?? ????????? ??????? ??? ??? ?? ?????? ?????????? ????, ?? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ?? ?????????? ?????? ??? ????? ???? ?????????? ?? ???? ??????.

? ?????? ??? ?????????, ??????, ???????????? ; ??????????????? (1998) ????????? ?? ???? ????? ??????????? ??? ???????? ??? ???????? ??? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ????? ???????? ?’ ????????????, ?’ ???????????? ??? ???????, ??????? ?? ??? ???????? ??? ???????????? ???????? ??? ????????????????? ?? 1997. ??????? ?? ?? ???????? ??? ???????, ?? ???????? ??? ????????? ?? ?????????? ?????? ??????????, ?? ????????? ?? ??????????? ?????? ????????, ??????????? ??? ???????????? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ????????? ??? ?????? ???????? ??? ????????? ??? ?? ?????? ???????????? ???????? ???????, ???????????? ??? ?????? ??? ??????????? ?? ??????????.
?????????? ?? ??????? ??? ?????????????? ?? ???????? ??? ??? ????????????? ???? ?????? ???? ??? ???????? ??? ???????????, ??????? ???? ?????? ??? Cubillo ; Brown (2003) ??? ???????????? ??? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????????, ???????????? ??????????? ????? ??? ???????????????????? ????????.

? ?????? ??? Mwebi ; Lazaridou (2008) ???????? ??? ??????? ???????? ?? ????????????? ????????? ????? ?? ????????????? ???? ?????? ?????????? ??? ?? ??????? ??? ??? ?????????? ????? ???????? ?? ???????? ??????, ???? ???????? ????????? ??? ???? ????? ???? ??????????.

?? ???????????? ??? ??????? ??? Moller (2003) ??????? ??? ?? ???????? ??? ?????????? ???? ?????? ???? ???????? ???????, ???????? ???? ?? ??????? ???? ????, ????????? ??????????? ??? ????????????? ???? ????????? ?? ??? ???????? ???? ??? ?????????? ?? ????/??? ???????/????? ???? ??? ????????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ?? ???????????? ??? ????????? ?? ??? ????????????? ???? ???, ???????????? ???? ??? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ???? ?????? ????.

? ???????? ?????? ??? Bradbury ; Gunter (2006) ???????? ??? ?? ???????? ???????????? ??? ??????? ??????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ??? ???? ??? ??????, ?????? ?? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ???? ???? ??? ?? ??????? ???? ???????? ?? ????????? ??? ????? ??? ?????????? ??? ????????????? ???? ???? ?? ??? ????????????? ???? ???????????.
??? ?? ?????? ??? ???? (2006) ????????????? ??? ?? ???????? ????????? ??? ???????????? ??????? ????, ???? ??????????? ?? ????????????? ??????????, ????? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ???? ???????????? ??? ??? ????????????? ??? ????. ????????? ??????? ?? ???? ????????????? ?? ??????? ??? ?? ???????? ??? ????? ?????? ???????? ?? ????? ?? ??? ?????? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ??? ???????? ???? ?? ??????????? ???????????. ???? ??????????? ??????????, ?? ??? ?? ??????? ??? ???????? ????????????? ????? ??????????? ??? ?????? ??? ???? ??? ??????, ?????? ???? ????? ??? ???????????? ??????, ?? ??????? ????????????.
??? ?? ???????????? ??? ??????? ??? Kyriakoussis ; Saiti (2006) ,???????? ??? ? ?????????? ??? ???????? ????????????? ?? ?????? ?? ????? ??? ?????????? ?? ???????? ??? ??????????? ????, ?????? ???? ????????????? ??????????? ???? ??? ???????? ????????.

???????? ???????? ?????????? ??? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ?????? (2007) ???? ???????? ??? ?? ???????? ????????????? ?? ?????? ?? ???????????? ???????????? ?????? ???? ????????????? ???????????, ?? ?????? ?? ?????????? ???????, ????????? ?? ?????????? ???? ???? ???? ??? ???????? ??????? ??? ? ????? ??? ????????? ??????????????.

?? ???????? ???????? ??????????????? ?? ??? ????? ?????? (?????? ,2010) ???? ?? ????????????? ??????????? ????????? ??? ????? ????? ???????????? ??? ???????? ??? ?? ????????? ???? ???? ???????????? ???????? ??? ?????? ?? ??????? ???????? ???????? ??? ?? ?????????? ?????????????.

? ?????? ??? Kaparou ; Bush (2007) ??? ????????????? ?????????? ??? ??? ??????? ??? ?????? ?????? ???, ??? ??? ??????? ???????? ?? ????? ?? ?? ???? ??? ?????????, ?????? ?? ???????? ?????????????? ??????????? ??????? ???? ?????????, ?????????? ? ???????????. ?? ???????? ??????? ??? ??? ????? ??????????, ????? ?????????????? ?? ?? ?????????? ????? ??? ????????????? ???????????, ????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ??? ?? ?????????? ???? ???????????? ?????.

? Coleman (2007), ?????????????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ?? ???????? ???????????? ??? ????????????? ?????????? ???? ????????? ??? ??????? ???? ?? ???? 1996 ??? ?? ???? 2004, ?? ?? ???? ?????????? ????????. ?? ??????? ??? ???????? ??? ???? ??? ???????? ????????? ???? ?????????????. ???, ?? ?? ??????? ??? ?????? ?? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ??? ?????????, ?????? ? ????????? ?????? ?????????????? ??? ????????????? ???? ????????? ?? ???????? ????????????? ??? ????????.
?? ???????????? ??? ??????? ??? Moreau, Osgood ; Halsall (2007) ?????????? ??? ??????/?? ????????????? ??? ????? ????????/?? ?? ?????? ????????? ??? ????? ??? ?? ????????? ??? ?? ??? ??????? ??? ????????????? ????. ???????????, ? ??????????? ??? ??????? ???? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ??????? ??? ????, ?????????? ??? ????????? ?????/???? ???????/????? ??? ?? ??????? ?????? ???? ????? ??? ???????? ??????????? ??? ??????, ????????????? ???? ??? ?????????? ??? ????? ???? ????????.

? ?????????? ?????? ??? Mitroussi ; Mitroussi (2009) ????????? ????? ??????? ??? ???????? ??? ???????????? ????????? ???? ????? ?? ??????????? ??? ?? ????????????? ??????????, ???? ????????? ? ??????????? ??? ???????? ?? ???????????? ?????? ????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ???? ?????? ??? ??? ??????? ????????. ? ?????? ???? ? ????????? ??? ????????? ???? ?????? ????? ??????? ????????, ????? ??????? ??? ?? ??????? ??? ???????? ?? ?????? ??????? ???? ??????????? ?????????? ????? ????????? ??? «????????????». ????????, ??????????? ??? ? ?????????? «????» ???????? ???????????? ???????? ????????? ??? ??? ??????? ???? ???????? ??? ??????????? ??? ???? ??? ?????.

? Smith (2011), ???????? ???? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ????????? ??? ????????? ?? ???????? ????????????? ??? ?????????????? ??????????? ??? ??? ????????????? ???? ???????????? ???? ?????? . ??? ??? ?????? ???????? ??? ?? ????????? ??? ?? ????????????? ?????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ?? ??? ???????? ??? ????? ?? ????? ??? ??? ????? ????. ??????? ???????? ??????????? ??? ????????? ??? ????????????? ???? ??????, ??? ????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ??????? ????. ?????? ??????? ???????? ????????????? ??? ????????? ??????????? ??? ????? ?? ???? ??????? ????, ???????????? ??? ??? ????????????? ???? ???????.

?? ??????? ??? ?????????? (2013) ??? ??????? (2015) ??????? ??? ?? ???????? ????????????? ???????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ???? ?????? ???????? ????, ??? ????????? ?? ?????? ???????????? ???????? ??????? ???? ????????? ?????????? ???????, ?? ??????????? ?? ?????????????? ?????? ??? ????????? ?? ?????????? ??? ?? ?????????????? ???????. ??????, ??? ??? ?????? ???????? ??? ?????? ??? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ??? ???? ????? ???? ???????? ??? ???? ??? ????? ???? ????????? ??? ?? ???????????? ??? ??????????? ????.
??? ??? ?????? ??? ?????????? (2017) ????????? ??? ? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ? ????????? ???? ????????? ????????????? ??? ???? ???????, ????????? ?? ??????? ????? ?? ???????? ??? ??????? ???? ? ??? ????????????? ??????? ??? ???????????? ????????? ??? ???? ????????? ?? ???????????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????? ????? ??????????. ??????? ??? ????? ?????: ? ?????????? ???????????? ?? ??????, ????? ? ????? ??? ????????? ?????????????? ?? ????????????????, ? ?? ?????????? ??? ???????? ?? ??? ???????????? ???? ??? ????????? ??? ???????????, ???? ?? ???????????? ??? ????? ???? ???? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ????, ????????? ?? ?????????? ???? ???? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ???? ???????? ???????? ??????? ??? ?? ????????.

????? ? ?????? ??? ??????? (2018) ???????????? ??? ????????????????? ??? ???????? ???? ???????????? ?????? ??? ???????? ??? ???????????? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ??? ??? ??????? ????????????? ??? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ??? ???? ????????? ??? ???????????, ??????? ?????????? ?? ??? ????? ??? ???????, ???? «????????????? ???????», «?? ?????????? ?????????? ???? ??????», «? ?? ?????????? ??? ???????? ?? ??? ???????? ??? ??? ????????????» ??? ?? «?????????? ?????????». ?????? ??????? ??? ?? ?????? ??? ???????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ?????, ???? ?????????? ??? ????????? ???? ???????? ???????. ?? ?????? ?????????? ??? ?????????, ???? ??? ?????? ??? ??????? ???? ??????????, ??? ?? ???????? ??? ???????? ?? ?? ?????????????? ???????? ??? ???????? ???????. ???????? ???????????? ??? ???? ????? ????? ?????????, ????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ???? ??????.

??? ??? ???????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ????? ????????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ????? ??? ?????????????????? ??? ???????? ???? ???????????? ??? ?????? ??????? ???????????? ??? ?????????????? ???????????. ? ??????? ?????? ????????? ?? ????????? ?? ?? ???? ????????? ??? ??? ?????? ???????? ?????????????. ? ???? ??? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ??? ??? ??????? ??? ???????? ????????????? ??? ????????? ?? ??????? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ???? ?????????? ??? ??? ?????????? ???? ?????????? ??? ?????? ??????? ??? ???????. ??? ???? ???????? ??????, ?????????? ????? ??? ? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ????????, ????? ?? ??????????? ?? ??????? ??? ?????????? ???? (??????????? ; ????????, 2014).

2.1.? ?????????? ??? ????? ??? ????? ???? ??????????
?? ?????????? ??????? ??? ???? ??? ??????? ??? ??????????? ??? ??? ?????????????? ??????????, ??????????? ?? ?? ????? ???? ????????? ??????? ???? ?????????? ??? ????????. ??????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ???????? ?? ??????? ???????, ?? ?????? ??? ???????????? ???????? ?????? ???? ????? ????????, ????????????? ???? ???? ??????????? ??? ???????? ?? «?????????» ??? «???????» ???????????.
? ???????? ?????????????? ???????????? ???? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ??? ??? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ??? ??? ?????, ??????????? ???? ?????????? ??? ???? ????????????? ?????? ???????? ??? ?????? ??? ?????????? ?? ??? ?????? ??? ??????. ????? ???? ???? ???????? ? ?????????????? ???????????? ??? ???????? ???? ?????????? ???, ??? ??? ?????????? ?????. ?? ????? ???? ????????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????? ?? ???????????? ??? ??? ?????? ???? ??????? ??? ????????????? ??????, ??? ?? ???????? ???? ?????????????????? ??? ???????, ???? ?????????? ??? ??? ???????? ??????. ??????????, ???? ??? ???????? ???????? ??? ? ???????????? ??????? ??? ????????? ??? ??????? ?? ??? ??????? ???????? (????????????? ; ??????????, 1998).
? ????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ????? ??? ?????, ?????? ? ?????????? ???? ??? ??? ????? ?????????? ???? ?????? ???, ????? ???????? ??? ?? ??????? ?? ??? ?????? ??? ???????? ??? ?? ?????, ??????????? ???? ?????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ???? ??????? ??? ???????????? ??? ???????? ????????? ??????????. ???? ?? ???????? ??? ???????? ??? ??? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ???????, ?? ????? ??? ?? ????? ??? ?????? ?? ?????????? ?? ??? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ???? ?????????????? «??????? ? ?????????» ????? ??? ???????? (Browns, 1990). ??????? ??? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ???????? ????? ????? ? ?????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????????? ??????????????? ??? ??? ????????? ??????????????? ????????.

? ?????????? ??? ????????? ??? ?? ????, ????????? ??????????? ?? ??? ?????? ??? ??????????? ??? ?? ???? ??????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ??????????. ?? ????? ??? ?????, ????????? ??? ? ????????? ????? ??????? ?? ??? ???????????? ??? ??? ?????????? ??? ??? ???????? ??? ??????????? ?????????. ????, ???????????? ????? ?????? ??? ??? ?????, ????????????? ??? ??? ???? ?????? ? ???????? ???? ??? ????? ???? ??????????? ?? ???????? ???? ???????, ?? ????????, ?? ?????????, ??????????? ??? ?????? ?, ?? ?????????? ?? ??? ??????? ????. ??????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ??? ?? ??????? ???? ????? ?? ??????????????? ????????, ?? ???????? ??? ????????? ????? ??? ??? ??????????????. ??? ??? ????, ??????? ?? ?? ?????????? ???? ??? ??? ???? ??? ???????? ?????????? ??? ???????, ??? ????????????, ??? ???????????????, ?? ??????? ??? ????????????? ???????? ???? ??????? ?????????. ?? ??????? ???? ??????????? ?? ?????? ???? ? ???????, ? ????????, ? ???????? ????? ??? ? ?????????? (????????, 2012).

? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ???????? ???????? ???? ????? ??? ?????????????? ???????? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ???????? ??? ??????? ?? ????????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ??? ??? ????? ??? ?????????? ????? ?????????????? ???????? (Fitzgerland ; Betz, 1983).

? ?????  ????????????? ??? ??????? ??? ?????? ??? ?????????????? ???????? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ???????? ????? ? ??????????? ??????? ??? ????????????? ????? ?????? ?? ???????? ?? ?? ???????????? ??????? ??? ????????????? ???? ????????. ?? ?????? ????? ????????? ?????????????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ??? ???????????, ???? ????? ??? ?????????? ???? ??? ??????????? ????????. ??????????? ?? ????????????? ??? ?? ?????????????? ??????????? ??? ?????? ??????? ????????? ???? ??? ?? ????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????? ???????????? ?? ??? ?????????????? ??????????? (Diamond, 1987). ????????, ?? ???????? ????? ??????????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ??????? ??????????? ????? ?? ??????????? ????. ??? ??? ?? ???????? ????? ????????? ?????????????? ?? ???????? ???????? ??? ???????????? ???? ??? ?? ???????? ????????, ???? ????? ??? ?????????? ???? ??? ??????????????? ???? ??????????. ??? ??? ???????? ? ???????? ??? ??????? ????? ??????? ??? ???????????? ?????. ? ???????? ????????? ??? ????? ?? ???????? ????? ? ?????????? ???????????. ? ???????????? ??? ? ????????????? ??? ??? ????? ?????????? ?????? ???? ???? ?????????? ?? ????????. ?? ???????? ????? ??? ?????? ??’ ??? ?? ?????? ?? ?????????? ??? ?????? ???????????? ??? ?????????????? ?????? ??? ?? ???????? ??? ?’ ????????????? ???? ?????????????? ????? ??? ??????????? (Ginzberg, 1994).

?? ??????? ??? ???????? ??? ???????? ??? ??? ???????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ??? ?? ????? ??? ??? ???? ??? ????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????????. ???? ???? ??? ????????? ??????? ????? ???????? (De Bruijn, 1986). ?? Mourik, Siegers ; Stijnenbosch (1983) ?????? ??? ??????? ???? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ??? ??? ??????????? ???? ???? ????? ?? ???? ?? ????. ?? ???????? (82%) ????????????? ?????? ?? ??? ???????????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????? ???? ????? ? ??????????, ? ?????? ?????????, ??????????? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ??????? ??????????/?????????.

???? ?????????? ??????????? ???? ????????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ?????? ????????? (?.? ?????????? ????????? ? ??????????????) ???? ?? ?????? ????????????. ?? ??????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????? ??? ???????? ?? ???? ??? ?????????? ??? ???????? ??????????? ?? ???? ?????? ??? ?? ?????? ?????? ?? ??????? ????? ??? ?????? ??????? ??? ??? ????????, ??? ?????????? ??? ????????????, ???? ???????? ??? ?????? ????? ??? ?????????, ????????? ???????? ??? ??????. ?. ??????????? ???? « ??????? ????? » ??????????????? ??? ????? ???? ?? 1984 ?? ????? ?? ????????? Adweek ?????????? ?? ??????? ????????????? ??????????? ??? ???? ??? ???????????? ????? ?? ??? ?????? ??? ??????????? ???? ?? ???? :«?? ???????? ????? ?????? ????? ?? ??????? ?????. ????? ?????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ??? ???? ????????? ??? ???????» (Falk, 2003).

?? ????????????? ????? ??????? ?????? ????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??? ??? ???????? (????????????, 2009). ??? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ???? ??? ?? ???????? ????? ????????? ???????? ??? ?? ?????? ????????? ?????????? (Gold, 1996). ???? ??? ??????????? ??? ??????? ??? ??????? ??? ???????? ??????? ?? ?? ??????? ???? (????????,2012).

???????, ??? ?????? ??? ??? ???????? ??? ’70 ?? ????? ?? ?? ??????????? ???? ????????? ??? ??? ?????, ????????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ?? ?? ???? ??? ??? ???????? ???? ??????????, ?? ????? ?????? ????? ???? ???? ????????? (????, 2006: 47). ?? ????????? ?????? ??????, ?? ?????????? ??? ????????? ???? ???????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ??? ????????? ??? ???? ?? ????????? ???? ??? ???????? ?? ?????? ?????? ??? ????????, ???? ????? ? ???????? ???? ?? ???????????? ?????? ??? ??????? ??????. ????????????, ??????????? ? ????????? ??? ???????? ???? ?????????? ???????? ??? ???????? ??????????, ????? ??? ?? ???????? ?????? ??? ????????????? ??????????. ????, ???? ?? ?????????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ??? ?????? ???? ?????????? ??? ????????? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ???????, ???????????? ??? ????? (??????, 1997; ???????, 1997; ????????????-?????????, 1996; ???????????, 2011).

? ??????? ??? ?????????? ???? ????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ??? ????????, ?? ????? ????????? ???? ?? ???????? ??????? ??? ??????? ???????? ???? ????? ????????? ??? ????????, ???? ?? ???? ??? ?? ??????????? ??????????????? ??? ??? ?????. ?????????? ?? ?????? ?????????????? ?? ????? ????????? ??????? ?? ???? ????? ??? ???????????, ??? ??????? ??? ??? ???????? ???????????. ?? ???????? ?? ???????? ????? ??? ???? ?? ???????????? ?? ????? ????????? ??????????????? ???????? ??????????? ???? ???????? ??? ?? ???????? ??? ???????. ? ??????????? ???? ???????????? ??? ??? ????? ?????????? ?? ??????????????????? ???????????. ?? ?????? ??? ?? ??? ????? ??????????? ?? ????????? ???? ????????? ? ???????? ????? ??????? ??? ?? ??????????. ?? ???????? ??? ??? ???? ????? ??????????? ?? ????????? ??? ??????????? ??? ?????? ??? ?????? ??? ????????????? (?????????? 2012).
????????? ????? ??? ? ???????????? ?????? ???????????????? ???? ???? ??? ??????????, ??????????? ??? ?? ????????????? ??? ????? ??? ??? ??????? ????????? ???? ???? ????????????? ?????. ???? ??? ???? ?? ?????? ??? ?????? ?? ?????????? ??? ? ???????? ???????? ??? ???????? ???? ???????????? ?????? ??? ????????. ? ????????? ????????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ??? ??? ???? ? ???? ??? ????????? ?? ?????????? ??? ???????? ??? ???????. ???? ???? ?? ?????????????? ???????? ?? ????????? ?? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ????????? ??? ???????? (Oakley, 2000).

2.1 ?? ?????????????? ??? ???????? ??? ???????? ??? ???????????
?????? ????????? ??? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??? ????? ??? ???? ???????. ???? ??????? ?? ?????? ???????, ?? ?????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ?? ?????? ??? ?? ???????? ???????? ??? ?????????????? ?? ??????????? ?????, ??? ??? ?? ???????? ????? ?????????? ????? ?? ?? ??????????? ??? ?, ?? ?? ??? ?????? ??? ???????? (Santos, 1996). ?????????, ??? ????? ???????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ???????? ??? ???? ?????? (Ozga, 1993; Ouston, 1993), ??? ??? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ??? ??????? ??? ??????, ???? ???????????, ???? ??????? ??? ??????????? ??? ?????? ??? ???? ??? ?????? ???? ????????? (Gupton & Slick 1996).
???? ?? ???????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ??? ????????, ??????? ??????????????? ??? ??????????? ?? ??? ??????????????? ????? ?????????? ??? ?????????. ?? ????????? ?????? ????????????? ?? ???? ???????? ??? ???????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????????????, ??????????? ?? ????? ????????? (Martin, 1993).

?? ???????? ??????? ????? ??????, ??????, ?? ????????????? ??? ????? ?? ???? ?????????????? ??? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ??????, ??? ?? ???????? ??? ??????????? ???? ??? ??????????????. ?? ???????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ????????? ??? ??????????? ????????, ??? ?? ?????? ?????? ??? ???? ???? (Shakeshaft 1987). ??????????????????, ?? ???????? ???????? ?? ????????????? ??? ??? ???????????? ???????????, ??? ?? ?????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ???? ???????? ???????????? ??? ????????????? ??? ??? ???????-???????? ?? ??????, ????????, ???????? ?? ??????????? ?? ?? ?? ?????? ?? ???????? ??????????, ????? ??? ??????? ??? ???????? ?? ???????????? ????????, ??? ???????????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ?????????.

?? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ??? ? ?????? ???????? ?????? ??? ??? ????????, ????? ? ??????? ??? ?? ???????? ????????? ?? ????? ????????? ??????????? ???????, ??? ???? ???????? ??? ??????? ?????????. ?? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ??????????? ?? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ?????????? ?? ???????? ???? ??? ?????? ??? ????????? ??? ??????? ??? ??? ?????? ???? ?? ????, ??? ??? ??????????????? ?????????? ???? ????????????. ?? ?????? ??????????, ??? ??? ???? ??????, ?????????? ?? ??? ???????????? ??? ??? ??????? ???? ???????.

???????? ???? ????? ????????? ?????? ??? ???????? ?????????????? ???? ????? ??? ???? ?????????, ???? ??????????? ??? ???? ????? ???????? ???????????. ??????? ?? ?? ???????????? ??????? ?? ???????? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ??? ???????????? ??????? ?? ?? ??????? ???????????, ?????????? ?????? ??? ???????????? ??? ???????????? ??????????? ??? ???? ?????? (Powney & Weiner, 1999 ??. ????. ????????????, 1997).

? ???????????? ?????? ??????? ??? ???????? ?????? ?? ????????? ??? ????, ???? ????????? ?? ????????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ???? ???? ????????, ???? ??????????? ??????????, ???? ????????????? ??? ???????????, ??? ??????? ????? ????? ??? ???? ????????????? ??????? ?? ?? ???????? ???? ??? ???????? ?????????? (????? & ??????, 2012).

??????? ? ????????? ??? ?? ?????? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ???? ??? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ?? ??? ???????? ??? ????? ?? ????? ??? ????? ???????????? (1997). ??????, ????? ??? ?? ????????? ??? ?? ???????? ???????????? ??????????? ??? «???????» ??????????????, ???? ?????????? ?????? ? ????????????? «???????» ??? «???????». ??? ?? ???? ???? ?????????????? ?????? ??? ?? ???????? «..?????????? ?? ????????? ??????» ???? ???????? ????????? ???????? ???????????? (Taylor, 1995 ??. ????. ????????????, 1997).

?????, ?? ???????????? ????? ??????????? ??????? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ???????? ????????? ?? ?? ???????? ??? ????????? ?? ????????????? ???? ?????????? ? ??????? ?? ??? ??????? ??? ???????? ????????? ?? ????. ??????, ????????? ?? ??? ??????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ??????? ?????? ??? ???????? ?????, ?? ???????? ?????????? ?? ??? ?????????? ?? ??? ????????? ????? ??? ??? ?? ??? ?????????, ???? ??? ?? ??? ??????????? ??? ?? ??????? ???? ??????? ????? (Orga, 1993).

???????? ¨?????????????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ??? ???????????
1.??????????? ???????? ????, ???????? ?? ????????? ???????? ??? ???????? ???????. ????????????? ?????????
???????????? ?? ??????? ??? ?? ??????????? ????? ????????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ?????????.

??????????????????
2.???????????? ????????
?? ??????? ??? ????? ????? ??? ??? ???????????? ???????? ????? ????????? ??? ??? ??????? ????????????? ?????????????? ??????. ??????? ?????? ????? ??? ????? ????? ?????? ??????? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ????????? (management), ????? ??? ??????? ???????? ??? ??? ???????? ???? ????? ????????? ???????. ?????????, ??????????? ? ????????? ???? ????????? ??? ????????????? ?? ????? ?????? ????????. (?????, 2014; ??????, 2008).

??????? ?? ??? ????? (2000), ? ???????? ????? ??? ????????? ??????, ? ????? ????????? ???? ???????? ?????? ????????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ????? (??????? ??? ??????) ???? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ?? ?????? ???????? ??? ???????? ??????????????? ?????? ???. ? Bush (1986 ??? ????????, 2008), ?????? ?? ???????? ?? ?? «?????????? ??????????? ??? ????? (??????????, ?????? ??? ????????) ??? ??? ?????? ??????????? ?? ?????????????? ?????».
???????????, ? ???? «????????» ?????????? ??? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ???????? ??????? ??? ??? ???????? ???? ?????. ??????? ???? ?? ??? ?????? (2008), ?? ???????? ???????? ? ????? ??????????? ???? ??? ???????? ?????? ?????? ?? ?? ???????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????. ? ???? ?????????? ??? ???? ????????? ??? ?? ?? ?????? ?? ?????, ???? ??? ??? ???????? ??? ?????????? ?? ????? ????????? ????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ???? ????????. ??? ??? ????, ??????? ?? ??? Fayol ? ???????? (management) (Wren, Bedeian & Breeze, 2002) ?????? ???????? ?? ? ????????????? ????????? ????????????? ??? ????????? ?? ???? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ??? ??????????, ?? ??? ????????? ??? ??? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ?????. ???? ?????????? ?? ????? ???????????, ?????? ??? ??????????????, ??? ????????, ??? ?????????, ??? ?????????? ??? ??? ??????. ???, ????????? ??? ??? ?????????? ??????????, ? ????? ?????? ?? ???????????? ??? ??????????, ???? ??? ??? ?????? ???? ??????????? ??? ??? ?????????? ??? ????? ???? ???????? ?? ????? ?? ???????? ??? (?????????, ?????? & ???????????, 2013; ??????????????, 2007; ?????, 2014; ????????, 2006; ?????, 2011; ??????, 2008).

?? ?????????, ??????????-?????, ????????????, ????????? & ??????????? (1999), ??????? ?? ???????? ??? ????????????? ?????????? ?? «?? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ???????? (???????, ????????, ?????????? ??????????), ?????????????? ??? ?????????? ????? ??? ??? ?????? ??????????? ?? ??? ?????????????? ?????». ??????? ?? ??? ?????????? (2002), ? ??????? ??? ????????? ????? ?????? ??? ???? ??? ???????? ???? ???? ?????????, ????? ???????? ??? ???????????? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?? ??????????? ??? ?? ???????? ?????? ??? ????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ?? ???? ??????? ??? ??????????. ? ??????????????? (2005), ???????? ??? ? ???????? ??? ???????? ???????? ??? ???????????????? ?????????? ? ????? ??????? ?? ???????????? ??? ?????????? ???? ??? ???? ?????? ??? ?? ????????? ?? ??? ?????????? ???? ??? ??????????? ??? ??? ??? ????????????? ??? ???????? ???????, ?? ????????? ??? ??? ???????????…».

? ???? ??????? ?????? ???????? ???? ????????? ??? ???? ???? ?????????? ????? ??????? ??? ????????? ?? ???? ???????? ?? ?? ?????????? ?????? ??? ????? ??? ??????????. ?? ???? ??????? ?? ???? ????????? ???? ??? ??? ???????.

???????? ???????? ??????? ????? ? ??????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ???????????????, ?????????, ?????????? ??? ??????? ??? ??????????? ????? ??? ??????????? ???? ???????????? ??????????, ???? ???? ?? ?????????, ?? ????????? ??? ?? ???????? ??? ?????? ?? ????? ?????????????? (????????, ????????? & ?????, 2015). ???? ???????? ??? ??????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ???? ???????? ???????. ??????, ???????? ?? ????????? ??????? ??????? ??? ??????? ?????? ??? ?????????.

2.1 ? ????? 4327/2015? ????? ??? ?????????? ??? ???????? ??????? ???? ???????? ??? ??????????? ????? ????????? ??????????, ??’ ???? ?? ?????? ?? ????????????? ?????? ?? ????????????? ??? ?????????????? ?? ?????????? ??? ????????, ??? ?? ??????? ?? ????????????? ??? ????????? ??? ?? ????? ??????????????? ??? ???? ??? ????????????.

????????? ?? ??? ??????? ???????? ???? ??????????, ??? ?????? ??? 2015, ?? ???? ??? ???????? ??????? ??? ???????????? ??? ??? ?????????????? ???????????, ?? ??????????/?????? ??????????? ??? ????????????? ???? ??? ???????? ??? ????? ??? ????????????? ??? ???? 3848/2010 ??? ???????????? ?? ????? 10. ? ??? ????????? ????????????? ????? ??? ????? ????? ??? ??? ????? ???? ???? ??????? ??? ???????????, ?? ???????? ??????????? ???? ???????? ???????, ??????????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ??????????. ???? ??????? ???? ??? ???????????? ???? ??? ??????? ?????????, ??????????????? ???? ??? ????????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ??? ?? ?????????? ????????? ???? ?????????? ???????????.

??????? ?? ?? ????? 17 ??? ????????? ?, ?????????? ??? ???????? ??????? ???? ?? ?????????? ?? ????? ???????????? ????????????? ???????? ???? ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ??? ???????????? ??? ?????? ? ?????????. «?? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ??? ?.?. ??????????? ????????????? ??? ??????? ???????? ?? ??????? (10) ??????????? ???????????? ????????, ?? ?????? ????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ??? ???? (8) ??????????? ??? ???? ??????????? ? ????????????? ??????????. ??? ?? ??????? ???? (8) ??? ??????? ?????????? ??????????, ?? ???? (3) ??????????? ?? ?????? ?? ????? ??????? ?? ???????????? ?? ??? ???? ?????? ???? ?????? ???????? ??? ??????? ????????, ?????????????? ?? ???? ??????????? ?? 50% ??? ???????????? ???? ???????». ??????, «?? ?? ????????????? ??? ???????? ??????? ??? ??????? ??? ?????????? ??? ????????? ?????????? ?????????, ????????? ?????? ?? ????? ??? ????????????? ?? ????????? ????? ?????????».

??? ???????? ??????? ????????? ??? ???? ????????? ????? ??????? ?? ??? ???? 4327/2015 «?? ????????????? ???? ??? ??????????? ??? ?????? ??? ????????? ???? ??????????? ??????????, ????? ??????? ?????????????????? ??? ?? ????????????? ??? ??????????? ??? ?.?. 323/1993».

???? ????? ?? ???????? ????????, ????????? ?? ??? ???? ???? ?? ????: «?) ? ???????????? – ??????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????, ???? ????????? ??? ?? ???????? ??? ??????? ??? ????????? ??? ?? ??????????????? ??????????? ????????.

?) ? ?????????? ?????????, ???????????? ??? ?????????? ????????, ???? ????????? ??? ???????? ??? ??????? ??? ?????????.

?) ? ??????? ??? ????????? ??? ???????????? ????, ???? ????????? ??? ??? ?????? ???? ?????? ???? ??????????, ????? ??? ? ????????????? ??? ? ?????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ??? ??????????? ???? ????????? ??? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ??? ?.?. ???? ?? ??????? ????????? ??? ???????? ???????????».

????, ?? ?????????????, ??????? ??? ???????????, ??? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ???? ???????? ?????????? ?? ?????????? «???????? ??? ?????????????? ??? ????? ?????????? ???? ?????????????? ??? ???????? ???? ???? ? ?????????????, ?? ????, ? ??????????, ?? ??????? ???????????, ? ??????????? ???????????, ? ????????????? ???????? ??? ????????, ????? ??? ?? ?????????? ??? ?????????».

«???? ?????????? ??? ????????? ??????????????? ???????????: ? ????????? ???????????? ??? ???????????, ? ????????? ????????? ???????????? ??? ???????? ??????????? ????? ??????????, ???????????, ??????????? ??? ????????????, ????? ??? ? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????????? ????????? ??? ????????????? ???? ??? ?????? ??? ?????????? ????».

? ?. 4327/2015 ??????????? ??? ??? ??? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ????? ????????, ????? ? ?’ ????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ???????????, ?? ??? ??’?????. 711/2016 ??????? ???, ?????? ???????????????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ??? 2015 ??? ??? ????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ??? ???????? ???????.

??????????, ? ????????? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ? ???? ?????? ???????? ????? ????????? ???? ????????????? ????? «??? ????????, ??? ??????????? ??? ??? ????????? ?????????? ??? ????????????? ???? ?????? ???? ???????? ?????? ???? ?? ???? ??? ?????????? ??? ????? ??? ??????????» ??? ???? ????? ?????????? «? ??????????? ???????? ??? ??????? ??????????? ???? ????? ???????? (??????????) ???? ?? ???????????? ???? ?????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??? ??????????????? ????????????? ??? ?? ?? ?????????? ??? ???????? ??????????».

??????? ?? ?? ????????, ?????????? ???? ??????? ??? ???, ? ???????? ??? ???????? ??????? ?????? «?? ????????????? ??? ????????? ?????? ??? ???????????? ??? ?????????? ?? ??????? ???????????, ??????????? ??? ?????????????????? (???? ????? ?? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????) ??? ?? ??????? ??? ????????????? ??????????, ????????? ??? ?? ?????????? ??? ??????? ??? ??????????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ??? ??? ??????? ??? ?????????? ????? ??? ?????????» ??? ?? ??? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ???? ??? ???????? ???????????, ?? ????????? «??? ????????????? ?? ??????????» ??? ? ??????? ??? ??????????? ??????? ??? ??? ?????????? «???????? ???? ????? ??? ????????, ??? ??????????? ??? ??? ????????? ?????????? ??? ????????????? ???? ?????? ???? ???????? ?????? ???? ?? ???? ??? ?????????? ??? ????? ??? ??????????». ?????, ??? ?????????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ??? ???? ????????, ?? ???? ??? ?????? 20 ??? 95 ??? ??????????? (???????? ??????? ??????? ??????????, ?.??.).

?????? ? ????????? ??? ??? ?????????? ??? ? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ??????? ????? ????????, ???? ? ?????? ??? ?????????? ???? ????????????????? ????????? ??? ????? 4327/2015.

2.3. ???????? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ??? ?????????????? ???????????

Post Author: admin