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A Literature Review on the Relationship between Customers’
Satisfaction and Loyalty

Date Submitted: 18/10/2018

By: Krishna Tamang Student ID: 30002097
To: Qilong Zhang
Paper: GENR.7026. Practice Based Research
Assessment One

A literature Review
Topic: The relationship between customers satisfaction and loyalty

Introduction
The literature review disseminates the relationship between customers’ satisfaction and loyalty. The relationship between customers’ satisfaction and loyalty is discussed with various relevant literatures. This literature review also presents an understanding of the relationship between customer satisfaction and customer loyalty in today’s global market scenario. This literature review will cover factors influencing customers’ satisfaction and loyalty. The subject has gained a lot of attention from researchers and practitioners across the globe for the further understand and findings.

Definition:
Satisfaction is an analytic scale of how well a customer’ needs and requests are met whereas client dependability may be a degree of how likely a client imitate in related activities. They were of the conclusion that client fulfillment has a vital relationship with client loyalty. They too included that it is impossible to have loyalty without satisfaction (Faizan et.al., 2011).

New customers’ cost more to serve than repeat client which implies that repeat customers’ are including fulfillment in a firm’s cost structure (Reichheld and Sasser, 1990). Customer’s Satisfaction is the heart of marketing. The capacity of an organization to fulfill customers’ is crucial for a number of reasons. (Oliver, R.L.) found out that disappointed customers ‘tend to complain to the company and in a few cases look for adjustment from them more frequently to soothe cognitive discord and terrible utilization encounters. On the off chance that benefit suppliers come up short to appropriately address such behavior, it can have a genuine antagonistic impact. In extraordinary cases of disappointment, clients may resort to negative word of mouth as a implies of getting back to the company. (Reichheld, F. F., Greenish blue, T., & Smith, D. K. 1996 pg.81) claimed that “unsatisfied clients may select not to deformity, because they don’t anticipate getting superior benefit elsewhere or on the off chance that the exchanging cost is high. Moreover, satisfied customers’ may explore for competitors since they accept they might get way better benefit elsewhere”. Customers’ Satisfaction is complicated to characterize since regularly it is palliated by desire. Customers ‘will be satisfied in case the item or benefit over requests or desire. On the other hand, on the off chance that the item or benefit underneath requests or desire, the client will be disappointed (Goodman, .2009). (Wilton, .1988, pg.12-204) characterizes customers’ satisfaction as a judgment for the distinction between the palatable of the item or benefit and customer’s claim desire. Agreeing to this contention, customers’ will be satisfied in case the quality of the item or carrier over needs or desire. On the other hand, in case the quality of the item or supplier underneath requests or desire, the client will be disappointed. Customers’ Satisfaction is depicted primarily based on the feeling after the utilization conduct within the second categories.
Customer Loyalty
Oliver (1999,33) characterizes loyalty as “a profoundly held commitment to revamp and re-patronize a favored item or benefit within the future in spite of situational impacts and showcasing endeavors having the potential to cause exchanging behaviors. “Customer devotion is seen as the quality of the relationship between an individual’s relative state of mind and re-patronage. Although customer fulfillment may be a significant portion of a trade, fulfillment alone cannot take commerce to a beat level. Customers’ Satisfaction produces a positive monetary result, particularly in customary buys. Today’s unforgiving showcase where making and maintaining customer loyalty is more complex than it utilized to be within the past a long time. This is because of technological breakthrough and widespread of the internet uses. Loyalty building requires the company to center the esteem of its item and administrations and to appear that it is interested to fulfill the crave or construct the relationship with customers’ (Griffin 2002.)
Thomas and Tobe (2013) emphasize that “loyalty is more profitable.” The costs to pick up a new customers’ is much more than holding existing one. Loyal customers’ will empower others to purchase from you and think more than twice some time recently changing their intellect to purchase other services. Customers’ Loyalty isn’t picked up by an accident; they are developed through the sourcing and plan choices. Planning for customers’ loyalty requires customer-centered approaches that recognize the need and intrigued of benefit collector. Customers’ loyalty is built over time over different exchanges. A relationship with a customer is similarly critical in client loyalty nd this requires that company work in a broader setting that expands past itself, as no company can be world class at everything (McDonlad & Sharp 2000). Gremler and Brown (1999) underneath Based on Coyne (1986), there are two basic limits influencing the interface between and practical and loyal customers’ base have been found to be useful to the firm. Most companies strive for customer loyalty the competition in most sectors grows tighter both the importance of and the challenge in, keeping customer loyalty increases. Indeed, customer satisfaction has for many years been considered as a key factor in determining why customers leave or stay with an organization (Clemes, 2008). Therefore, organizations need to know how to keep their customers, even if they appear satisfied. Every organization has come to realize that in order for it to survive, let alone grow, it has to acquire and then retain profitable customers. Customer Satisfaction is not a guarantee of repeat patronage. Satisfied customers jump ship every day, and the reasons are not always due to customer dissatisfaction, some customers are lost due to indifference which arises from pure neglect (Clemes, 2008). Loyalty is best measured by continued buying behavior. Loyal is about earning people’s enthusiastic commitment to a relationship that will improve their lives over a long term.” Hence, customer loyalty is about earning customers’ trust and improves the enterprise’ benefits (Goodman 2009). Customer loyalty suggests a customer’s superb mindset for the repeating buying behavior on positive merchandise or services. Customer loyalty refers to the influences of quality, price, service, and many relevant factors, these factors can create depth feelings on positive product or service so that the product or carrier will become the preference (Gremler ; Brown 1991). Customer loyalty is an approach that creates mutual rewards to benefiting companies and customers. With loyal customers, corporations can maximize their earnings because loyal customers are willing to buy extra frequently, spend cash on trying new merchandise or services, endorse merchandise and offerings to others and supply corporation honest tips repeating buying behavior on certain products or services. Customer loyalty refers to the influences of quality, price, service, and many relevant factors, these factors can create intensity feelings on certain product or service so that the product or service becomes the preference (Reichheld ; Sasser, 1990) Customer loyalty means the repeating purchase behavior based on personal preference of certain product or service. Loyalty customers are the most competitive advantage of an enterprise (Thomas ; Tobe 2013). loyalty customers are more profitable. Furthermore, client loyalty is generally expressed through emotional loyalty and behavior loyalty. Among them, emotional loyalty assumes that the patron is relatively recognized and satisfied for the belief, behavior, and visible effect on of the enterprise. Moreover, behavior loyalty is expressed through the repeating buying behavior for the product or service of the company. Loyalty has emotional factors in itself. Simple shopping for behavior cannot virtually provide an explanation for loyalty. Repeating buying behavior does no longer necessarily displays customer’s sure preference. Sometimes this conduct may also exist due to the fact of many barriers of changing. On the other hand, decrease buying conduct might also exist due to the fact of a certain state of affairs or just randomness. Repeating buying conduct indicates that the customer is staying, however, it can’t show that the purchaser is loyalty. Loyalty purchaser need to have repeating buying conduct with quite mind-set orientation. Gremler ; Brown (1999) divide customer loyalty into three categories which include behavior loyalty, intentional loyalty, and emotional loyalty. Behavior loyalty is the repeating purchasing behavior. Intentional loyalty is the possible buying intention. Emotional loyalty is the attitude of customers for the enterprise and its product or service, the customer may help the company publicize its product or service positively.

Factors influencing customer satisfaction and customer loyalty
Generally, customer loyalty is a behavior while customer satisfaction is an attitude. Therefore, there are certain differences between the factors which influence customer satisfaction and customer loyalty. Therefore, in order to increase the customer’s satisfaction the maximum, the factors which may influence customer’s satisfaction must be understood properly.

There are many factors which may influence customers’ satisfaction. The value of service quality or product quality plays a very important role in customer satisfaction. If the customer believes the value of service quality or product quality above his or her expectation, then the customer will be satisfied. On the other hand, if the customer feels the value of service quality or product quality below his or her expectation, then the customer will be dissatisfied. Service staff behavior can also influence the feeling of satisfaction to the customers. If the service staffs treat the customers with positive and right attitude then it will brighten the guest day which gradually affects the overall satisfaction of the guest. Perception of equality and fair infrastructure. Sometimes the customer’s satisfaction may also be influenced by the perception of equality and fair. Most of the customers really care about if they have been treated as the same as the other consumers. Hence, same price, same service or a fair deal is very important.

The factors which impact client loyalty encompass intrinsic value, consumer satisfaction, client experience, and corporate image. These factors are no longer solely coming from the business enterprise itself, but also from its competitors, customers, and social environment. In general, the factors can be divided into three categories. Corporate Brand awareness, the brand is used to identify a certain product or service with the others. It usually consists of words, mark, symbol, pictures, and color. The manufacturer represents the commitment of the enterprise and the attribute of the product. An identified manufacturer is proof of true quality. So the manufacturer is very useful for the selling. For the customers, the company is effortless to perceive and recognized. The manufacturer has extremely good interest on its commitment for the customers, so a conventional brand product or provider will become the first choice for the customers. Therefore, the company brand can impact client loyalty. Service first-class has extra without delay influenced consumer loyalty. It is one of the key elements which may additionally have an impact on customer’s behavior. Service quality decides whether or not the client is loyalty or not. Wilton (1988) defines customer satisfaction as a judgment for the distinction between the quality of the product or carrier and customer’s very own expectation. According to this argument, satisfaction is an evaluation of the product or service. Customer loyalty will be improved with an extend in client satisfaction. This is additionally the basis to enhance client loyalty.
The relationship between customer satisfaction and customer loyalty
Many researchers consider consumer satisfaction to be the high-quality indicator of a company’s future profit and competitiveness. The outcomes of customer satisfaction encompass customer loyalty (Bei & Chiao, 2001). In the customer advertising community, patron loyalty has long been viewed as an essential aim of any company entity (Reichheld & Schefter, 2000). And as such each advertising academics and professionals have attempted to discover the most outstanding antecedents of customer loyalty. Researchers have located a sturdy relationship between patron satisfaction and loyalty. For instance, Szymanski & Henard (2001), in their meta-analysis study, point out 15 positive and significant correlations between the two constructs. Bearden & Teel (1983) have additionally proven a relationship between satisfaction and loyalty. In fact, Jones (1995) argued that this relationship is not an easy linear one; the ensuing behaviors may also rely on consumer attributions, (i.e. their faith in the reasons of the patron satisfaction and dissatisfaction assessment).

Woodcock, Stone & Foss (2003) state that “Satisfaction may be a smart indicator of commitment and continuation buying behavior.” (p.10 (3), 240-254). Customer satisfaction may be a common place to spot the particular feeling of a client concerning the standard of service or product. It’s not solely concerning the direct impression concerning product or service quality however conjointly shows however the merchandise or service meets customer’s expectation or demand. Customer loyalty has influenced the standard of the merchandise or service and plenty of alternative factors. It will build the client showing emotion involved the merchandise or service. Particularly for the building trade, since the service chain is difficult, each detail during this chain might build a trial on attracting customers.

Customer satisfaction is for certain psychological satisfaction; it’s a perspective that is shown when the getting behavior. However, customer loyalty may be a behavior of constant dealings. Customer satisfaction measures a customer’s feelings and expectations whereas customer loyalty reflects the behavior of buying and commitment of buying within the future. Gitomer (1998) emphasizes that customer satisfaction is worthless because a satisfied customer still will buy the other company’s product or service.” Moreover, sometimes “customer satisfaction is wasted as a result of a satisfied customer still can get the opposite company’s product or service.” Moreover, typically even the customer isn’t entirely glad with the merchandise or service; but, he still chooses it due to a cheaper price or simply the situation. There’s little doubt that client satisfaction is that the key part which may cause continuation getting behavior. However, client satisfaction isn’t the foremost necessary consider client loyalty. in keeping with Rust ; Zahorik (1995), “customer satisfaction decides client loyalty.” Cronin and Taylor (1992) indicate that client satisfaction will influence customer loyalty directly. Hence, it’s understood that the connection between client satisfaction and loyalty is progressive.
Research Gap
The relationship between customer satisfaction and loyalty seems an inseparable part of a market scenario but the above literature review fails to discuss about the importance of customer satisfaction and loyalty regardless of the literature reviews discussing on customer satisfaction and loyalty. For a brand or company a customer plays an important role. The customer wants should be appreciated time and again so that there is high customer satisfaction and loyalty.

Conclusion
In today’s time customer satisfaction and loyalty plays an important role in determining the brand or company success. Customer satisfaction and loyalty indeed is a factor that pushes to achieve and work for the betterment of the service provider. The relationship between customer satisfaction and loyalty goes hand in hand.
References:
Bearden, W.O. and Teel, J.E. (1983). Journal of Marketing Research: Selected determinants of consumer satisfaction and complaints reports. American marketing Association, 48(6), (21-8)
Bei, L.T. and Chiao, Y.C. (2001). An Integrated Model for the Effects of Perceived Product, Perceived Service Quality, and Perceived Price Fairness on Consumer Satisfaction and Loyalty. Journal of Consumer Research, 14, 125-140.

Clemes, M. D, (2008). An empirical analysis of customer satisfaction in international air travel. Innovative Marketing, 4(2).
Cronin Jr, J. J., ; Taylor, S. A. (1992). Measuring service quality: a reexamination and extension. The journal of marketing, 55-68.Faizan, M. M, Nawaz, M. S. ; Khan, Z. (2011).Impact of customer satisfaction on customer loyalty and intension to switch: International Journal of Business and Social Science, 2(6).Gitomer, J. (1998). Customer Satisfaction Is Worthless, Customer Loyalty Is Priceless: How to Make Customers Love You, Keep Them Coming Back and Tell Everyone They Know. The United States of America: Bard Press TX
Goodman, J. A. (2009). Strategy Customer Service: Managing the customer experience to increase positive word of mouth, build loyalty, and maximize profits. New York: Amacom .Gremler, D. D. ; Brown, S. W. (1999). The loyalty ripple effect: Appreciating the full value of customers. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 10 (3), 271-291.

Griffin, J. (2002). Customer Loyalty: How to earn it, how to keep it, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Jones, T., Sasser, W. ; Earl, W. Jr. (1995). Why satisfied customers defect. Harvard Business Review, 7
Oliver, R.L. (1987). Association of Consumer Research: Advances in Consumer Research. Retrieved from 3(6), 88-99.Reichheld, F. (2001). Loyalty Rules: How today’s a leader build lasting relationships? The United States of America: Harvard Business School Publishing Corporation.

Reichheld, Frederick F., and Phil Schefter.(2000) “E-loyalty: your secret weapon on the web.” Harvard business review 78, no. 4 (2000): 105-113.

Reichheld, F. F., Teal, T., & Smith, D. K. (1996). The loyalty effect (Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 78-84). Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.

Rust, R. T. & Zahorik, A. J. (1995). Customer Satisfaction, Customer Retention and Market Share. Journal of Retailing, 69(2), 193-215.

Szymanski, D. M., & Henard, D. H. (2001). Customer satisfaction: A meta-analysis of the empirical evidence. Journal of the academy of marketing science, 29(1), 16-35.Thomas, B. & Tobe, J. 2013. Anticipate: Knowing What Customers Need Before They Do.

Wilton, P. C. (1988). Models of consumer satisfaction formation: an extension. Journal of Marketing Research, (12-204).
Woodcock, N, Stone, M., Foss, B., (2003). The quality of customer information management in customer life cycle management. Journal of Database Marketing & Customer Strategy Management, 10(3), 240-254.

Yuan, H. (2002).Increasing customer satisfaction gets the advantages of competition. Retrieved from http://www.emkt.com.cn/article/77/7718-2.html

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