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Amid the 1800’s, Europe had been the social, military, political, and the financial focal point of the world. The ideals of political Liberalism and parliamentary institutions were quite opulent. In the years following the First World War, though the world faced financial calamities, a new era of democracy seemed to be unfolding and it was looked promising. In particular, the autocratic regimes in Russia and Germany were overthrown and replaced by republics –– thus democracy seemed to triumphant in the post-war world. Yet within two decades, following World War I, many democratic countries in Europe were taken over by some kind of dictatorship. Russia became a Communist state. Italy and Germany became Fascist states. Of the powers in Europe, only Britain and France remained democratic. The Italian government was faced with many new problems after the First World War. A notable one was the Italian dissatisfaction with the territorial settlement made at the Paris Peace Conference that according to the Treaty of London, Italy was originally promised a great deal of territories and in actuality, those that were surrendered to Italy were not nearly as many.

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