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BABUL DAS
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DECLARATION
I BABUL DAS a bonafide student of M.A in Sociology in Assam University, Silchar would like to declare that dissertation entitled, CHILD LABOUR IN IRONGMARA VILLAGE under supervision Dr. KAJAL DAS, associate Professor, Department of Sociology, Assam University, Silchar submitted by me in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of degree M.A (Master of Arts in Sociology)in my original work.

Place : Babul Das
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
In the preparation of dissertation, I owe a deep depth of gratitude to my talented and inspiring supervision Dr, KAJAL DAS Professor of Sociology Department, Assam University Silcha, For his able guidance. Without his valuable suggestion it could not have been possible for me to complete this work.

I also convey my thanks to Mr.KAJAL DAS,head of the department of Sociologydepartment for his able guidance and valuable suggestion.

At the same time I am conveying my special thanks to my friends Sri Samujjal Kakti, Sri Makhon Das, Sudem Narary and my respected senior Sri Chakradhari Saha.

My Special gratitude to my father Sri Gopes Das and my mother Smt. Daya Rani Das and my brother for providing me enough scope, finance for completion of my work.

Department of Socialogy Badal ch. Das
Assam University, Silchar July –
CONTENTS
Declaration !
Certificate !!
Acknowledgement !!!
ChapterTitlePage no. The framework of the study
Introduction-concept and
theoryReview of Literature
Objective of the study
Methodology
Profile of IrongmaraSocial background of the respondents
Education background of the respondents
Summary and Conclusion
Recommendation
Bibliography
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
CONCEPT AND THEORY
Present chapter deals with concept and theory of child labour including review of literature, methodology, objective of the study, technique of data collection and universe of study.

The term child labour refers to anyone who is a child, who is under 14 years of age and who is working for to earn money. Child labour is of two types like bonded and non-bonded. Bonded is very much exploitative and later is relatively non-exploitative. Bonded is to work for food and shelter in a very poor condition. Bonded child labour is a kind of child labour in which children below (18 years of age as defined UNCRC) work against debt. Such a condition that restraint his/ her basic right. Tis ios called bonded child labour.
It is very difficult to define child labour, even not defined by child labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986. According to International Labour Organization (ILO) “child labour includes children prematurely leading adult lives, working long hours for low wages, under conditions damaging to their health and to their physical and mental development sometimes separated from their families, frequently deprived of meaning education and training opportunities that could open up for them a better future.” Through another process ILO defines that, “child labour refers to the work that deprive children of their childhood, their potential and their dignity and that is harmful for their physical and mental development.”
According to Amartya Sen, Child labour is intimately connecting with non-schooling of children. The same definition also adopted by the Government of Andhra Pradesh, according to them – any child out of the school is a child labour. It can be said that the intention of Andhra Pradesh Government is very clear to eliminate child labour so it notified that those children not attending school can be considered as child labour.

In that word, it refers to the work that mentally, physically, socially, or morally dangerous and harmful to children, and interfere with their schooling (1)by deprivingthem of the opportunity to attend school, (2) by obligating them to leave school permanently, or (3) by requiring them to attempt to combine school attendance with exclusively long or heavy work.
Therefore, from above definition the term “child labour” is often defined as work that deprives children of their childhood, their potential and their dignity, and that is harmful to physical and mental development.

It refers to that
. Is mentally, physically, socially or morally dangerous and harmful to children, and
. Interferes with their schooling by
. Depriving them of opportunity to attend school,
. Obliging them to leave school preamaturely, or
. Requiring them to attempt to combine school attendance with excessively long and heavy work.In its most extreme forms, child labour involves children being enslaved, separated from their families, exposed to serious hazards and illness and/or left to fend for themselves on the streets of large cities – often at very early age. Whether or not particular forms of work can be called child labour depends on the child’s age, the types and hour of work performed, the condition under which it performed and objectives pursued by individuals countries. Answer varies from countries to countries, as well as among sectors within countries.
General laws against child labour or factory act was passed in Britain in first half of the 19th century. An employer was not usually permitted to hire a child below certain minimum age. This minimum age depends on the country and type of work involve. Accordingly States ratifying minimum age convention, adopted by international organization in 1973, adopted minimum age varying 14 to 16 years.
Child labour is a global problem in developing and under developed society. Existence of child labour in India is barbaric practice. It is barbaric because it is inhuman stands against ethics. It is India common in under developed and developing society. In India an act was passed for the right to free and compulsory education in 2009 but still the child labour is practicing in different sectors and in every corner of the country. Root cause of child labour in our country is poverty and unequal distribution of resource. Illiteracy and socio culture factor also help to increase of child labour. Income level is low as well as they are not able to maintain their family substance tyhey are not able to provide education to their children. So parents consciously engaged their children in different work force or in different sectors for the upliftment of their economic condition. They also depend on their children to earning to maintain their family.

But it is also that not work done by children should be classified as child labour that is to be targeted for elimination. Children’s or adolescent’s participation in work that does not affected their health and personal development or interfere with their schooling is generally regarded as being positive. This includes activities such as helping their parents around the home, assisting in a family business or earning pocket money outside school hour and during school holidays. These kind of activities contribute to children’s development and to the welfare of their families; they provide them with skill and experience, and help to prepare them to be productive members of society during their adult life.

Therefore, Child labour is basically exploiting the underage children in any form forcing them to work illegally which harms or abuses them. This abuse may be physical, mental, sexual depriving the children (child labourer) of their right of basic education. Generally every school of thought believes that child labour would be absent in the development countries due to their high economic strata. Sadly, this is far from true. Be it any country, the degree of abuse is just the same. We have landed on moon but failed to revolution our country and politicians to take up the cudgels on behalf of small children who do not even know that they are being exploited.

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Children are considered to be the most vulnerable vis-à-vis productive for future. Children who are involved in different sector as a laborer are seen to be neglected and exploited by employer. In fact in any part of our country all children are not enjoying full freedom and development opportunity equally, for which those deprived children become unable to fulfill their needs and wills and very engaged themselves as laborer in different productive sectors. When society forces them to do hard work to earn their livelihood, denying them from the education and their optimal development, nation suffers a lot in every aspect. In India universalization of primary education and eradication of child labor are two issues that received serious attention since independence. Indian constitution, declares that state shall endeavor to provide, free and compulsory education for all children until they complete age 14 years within a period of ten years from its commencement. Similarly article 24 provides no children below age of 14 years shall be employed to work in any factory or mine or engaged in hazardous employment. Article 39 (E) and (F) of directive principal of state policy requires state to direct policy towards securing health and strength of workers, men, women. In such process tender age of children are not abused and are given opportunity and facility to develop healthy climate and protected against exploitation. Traditional concept of child labor is given by ILO (International Labor Organization). According to its labor includes children living permanently live, working long hours for low wage under condition damaging to their physical and mental development, sometime separately from their family, frequently deprived from education, training opportunity.

A great majority of children further work in agriculture, animal husbandry and household industries in rural area, and some of than are working in urban areas. But it has been observed that the level of exploitation is more in urban areas as compared to the rural areas because the children in rural areas carried out their work under the protective guidance of the parents or elder in the family. It is a believe among the rural people that a child who is engaged in work will develop their confidence, self respect and personality as well as they will become able to take responsibility of their family.

Problem of child labor has been a great debate as various national and international forums. Child labor is widely practiced in unorganized sector in developing country like India. Intensity of child labor varies from region to region and place to place.

Cause of child labor in India is extreme poverty, illiteracy, industrialization and socio cultural factors. World children report 1997 points out three key factors as cause of child labor (a) exploitation of poverty (b) absence of education (c) restriction of tradition. Large numbers of studies in India find out that high household expenditure and low parental education are the two causes of rural child labor. Since in developing country there is no system of allowances as it is available in the developing countries like UK, USA and France etc.

Government of India has to make conscious effort and make powerful laws to eradicate and eliminate child labor from the country.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Phenomenon of child labor in different occupational establishments particularly in unorganized labor dates back to history of human civilization. Problem of child labor in under developed and developing countries is quite high and abnormal. In our country problem of child labor assumed very alarming position. Incidence of child labor is direct result of poverty and socio cultural fabric. Independence, fundamental right and other procession embodied in constitution have no meaning to them. Despite enactment of various laws expression deep concerns over his issue by socio activist and academicians the magnitudes of the problem has not been set aside it rather went on increasing.

A large number of studies have been conducted in the field of problems of child labor. Prevalence of child labor is however considered to be the biggest threat and greatest in challenge in realization of pious goal of human resource of development. It is evident that putting children to work under tender age not only deprive them from education and physical growth.

International Labor Organization (ILO)estimates member of working children in world under age group of 5-14 and several studies highlight problem of child labor.

Vemuri and Sastry examine national sample survey organization (NSSO) data 1971 collected from 16,800 household selected from 61 agro climatic zone with similarity in population density and cropping pattern. Sample of household selected possessed little or no land tended to send their children for some work whenever it was available. They have analysed proportion of scheduled caste population, female literacy and examine prevalence of child labour. They says that modern method of production do not lead necessarily reduction in incidence of child labour.

Srikantan has analysed 1981 census data on child labour in rural or urban areas of India. He says that illiteracy is main cause for increasing child labour in rural or urban areas. He suggests broader long term measures (like productive employment and improving female education to reduce work participation of children.)
Jodha and Singh examine data from different ICRISA (International crop Research Institute for Semi Arid Tropic) village study and brought certain important features of child labour in dry tropical of Maharashtra.

About Andhra Pradesh and Rajestan both pointed out child labpour in these areas is an integral part of peasant adoptive strategy fuller use of a hostile productive environment. In such Period school attendance is decline. They say a higher proportion of household attend school and proportion who work as child labourer very low. They point out economic condition cause of child labour.

Tivm Dyson examined several numerical studies in less develop cuoes to understand relationship between child labour and fertility rate in present society or village area children are working in many tusk.

Kanbargi and Kulkarni Examined interrelation between child work schooling and fertility in rural Karnataka in 45 villages on an average children work for about 4 hour exceeding as they grow elder.

Shraif studied a cluster of 4 villages in Karnataka, with micro approach, to examine child work and child schooling relation. He shows children working from a young age cast membership carry a significant impact on schooling children. Scheduled Caste children have lowest school attendance as compared to other any caste in village. For him technology needs to bear great burden of house hold and other work Such a trend vis-a-vis practice may lead to decline school enrolment and literacy level in coming days.
Basu and Van (2005) state that children to supplement their parents income and without their earning it will be difficult to maintain minimum standard of living of their families of their rural areas.
Studies conducted by Tiwary (1997) Vasideva (1989) Mustafa and Sharma (1990) Vasudeva (1989) and Premi touched different aspects relating to work of child labour in different industries, different shop and agriculture field. Most child labour remains unreported and unnoticed to policy makers. Proverty and illiteracy is prime cause of child labour is rural areas.

Hence the present study to intends to fill gap in existing literature by different scholars because they have not discussed broadly about parents attitudes and parents awareness which is also cause of child labour. The study has been made to analyse cause, problem and condition working and parent’s attitude toward child labour in Irongmara village.

OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
Main objective of study are as follows:-
To study socio economic background of child labourer.

To identify cause of child labour.

To investigate parents attitude towards child labour.

To study awareness of law of parent and child prohibiting child labour.

METHODOLOGY
Design of study is meant for a holistic study of problem of child labour in Irongmara as reflected in objective of exploratory research.

SOURCE OF DATA
Data are collected from primary and secondary sources. Primary data are collected from respondents, by interview method. Secondary data are used to formulate and explain fact of research, including census report, statistics report and historical document.

UNIVERSE OF STUDY
Irongmara village is the universe of study. In study of the village I attempted to locate child labour, who engaged them in agricultural field and different kind of shops. Rather unit of study are child labour of Irongmara village. Keeping this in mind, the study is exploratory in nature.

SAMPLING OF UNITS AND TECHNIQUE OF DATA COLLECTION
Data are collected from 50 working children of Irongmara keeping in view about objective of present work. Purposive sampling method is used considering constaint of time and resource and 50 working children are selected to represent child labour scenario of Irongmara. Structured interview schedule consisting of questions related to socio-economic background, cause and condition of child labour is administered for collection of data. Interview schedule consisting of both open and closed ended question is also used. Fieldwork is conducted from January till last part of June.

SUMMARY
The term “Children Labour” is often defined as work that deprives children of their childhood, their potential and their dignity, and that is harmful to physical and mental development. It refers to work that is mentally, physically, and socially, or morally dangerous and harmful to children, and interfere with schooling (1) by depriving them of the opportunity to attend school. (2) by obligation them to leave school permanently, or (3) by requiring them to attempt to combine school attendance with exclusively long or heavy work.

CHAPTER II
PROFILE OF IRONGMARA
Present chapter aims to discuss a brief profile of study area Irongmara village in Cachar district of Assam.

Northeast India
Northeast India comprises kids stage namely, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Tripura Mizoram, Nagaland, and Sikkim. There are different race and cultural people are inhabited. It is situated between 2219 and 2816 N longitudes and 8942 and 972 S intetudes. It is surrounded by Tibet China and proton and in any South by Bangladesh and in the east by China and Myanmar consisting of an area of 262179 Sq. km which of 8% of the all Indian of 3287263 Sq. Km.

About 2/3 areas of reason in hilly and 1/3 plain. Hill and mountains action primarily consist (i) Arunachal Himalaya existing from eastern from of Bhutan is west of Sian Dhiang rivers of east (ii) Eastern hill comprising Debang Lohit Palkai range, Naga Manipur-Mizo and Tripura hill.

Bramaputra and Barak Valley along with Imphal valley and Tripura plains dominate plain and valley sanction.

ASSAM
State of Assam is in northeast India between Latitude 28.18 and 24 N and latitudes 89.46 and 97.4 and whole Assam can be classified different direct.

Economy of Assam is mainly depending upon agriculture. Above 74% of total population is engaged in agriculture. Total cultivable lens 35 lakh hector and 78% of its cultivable crops are paddy and vegetable etc, about 17932 land is reserved for forest.Main industry of Assam is tea. It is cultivated into 231 luck hector of land in Assam.

There are 777 tea gardens in Assam about of which 112 tea garden are located in Barak Valley. Assam tea is sold to different parts of world it is earning a large amount of foreign exchange.Large number of small scale, Cottage, Handloom and tea industry and 4 oil industry are there in Assam. It it is to be noted that numerically Assamese people a large in Brahmaputra valley whereas Bengali people are large in religious and half population is Hindu and rest is Muslim, Christian, Buddhist, Shik Jain etc.
It has seven general colleges, 1 National Institute Technology(NIT), One Medical College, one bachelor Training College and 28 higher secondary schools and one Central University (Assam University).

Silchar town of cachar district
Silchar is one of the people towns of Assam. It is a commercial Centre or half which is backbone of cachar district.

Total population of Silchar Municipal board area was 156948 according to 2001 census. Most of the people in Silchar speak Sylheti and dialect of Bengali.it is largely based on the agrarian economy and little extent on service and business most of the people live on farming and tea cultivation. Tea,Oil,Bamboo, cane rice and natural gas are the major contributors to Silchar economy.

Silchar is collected by road, rail and Air Communication. It is connected to other states Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Tripura by road. State transport buses and private buses ply between all these places. The Assam bengal railway brought Silchar into the railway map in 1899.The railway entered into Cachar near Badarpur junction across sylhet. A branch line from Badarpur throughout Bank of Barak passes up to Silchar Pass Khatakal and Ganga. The N.F Railway touches the difference towns like – Karimganj, Dharmanagar and connected states of Manipur with Silchar. It is likely to be transformed into a broad gauge in coming few years. The India airlines connecting Silchar with Calcutta and Imphal. The Kumbhirgram aerodrome is located at a distance of about 29 kms from Silchar.

Three Bengali Daily News Paper namely – ‘Dainik Sonar Cachar’, ‘Dainik Jugasankha’, ‘Dainik Prantojyoti are published from Silchar. There is only one English Daily News paper- ‘The Frontier Sun’ published from Silchar.

IrongmaraName “Irongmara” has a came from a historical event, before independence of british tea garden manager was living. He had a daughter and her name was Irang, she died by fever, from this event this village was named as Irongmara. Population of Irongmara village os approximately 6,585. Higest no. of population belongs to male and lowest no. of population belongs to female category, the totel land area of Irongmara is 9.60Sq.m and there are 1743 no. of houses. The Irongmara village is located in the north corner of Cachar. The topography of the village is heterogeneous composed of small hill and plains. The density of population of this village is 341 per sq.km. Literacy rate is 48.81% of the study area according to 1991 census. Which is not higher than the national level. The climate condition of this block is characterized by excessive humidity and temperature is higher some time is particularly in the month of May to September. Rainy season generally starts from the month of May to continues till October. The period from November to February normally cool and January being coolest month of this year.
Main source of drainage is river Ghagra and Salganga, Balichari which are following from south east to west. There are beels like campy and Marshy which are also known as Chatla Haor, Mokam beel, Upoor beel etc. Irongmara is well linked by PWD road with Silchar and Hailakandhi.
Economic profile of the village is almost like other village. Main occupation of people of Irongmara is cultivation and fishing. Irong mara village is under Borjalenga development block. There is no primary health center but it is situated nearby village with a distance about 4kms, like many other developing village people are getting govt. aids “Jawahar Awas Yojna”, IAY and 100 days working there are three primary school and one upper primary and one high schooland one post office and 2 PHE, majority people of the village are Bengali and tea garden are also inhabiting. In village the following casts and community have been living. Other backward cast, Scheduled caste and the general category people inhibit in Irongmara.

According to 2001 census, total population of Irongmara is 6,585. Male population is 3386 and female population is 3,199. Scheduled caste population of the village is 2,283- 1,186 are male population and 1,097 are female population. Number of Scheduled tribe is very less as compare to Scheduled Caste. In fact total no. of Scheduled tribe population in the village is 5 persons only. Out of which female scheduled tribes population is only 3 and male scheduled tribe population is only 2 in numbers.

1 Geographic location of village Situated at western part of Silchar town
2 Name of district CACHAR
3 Area of distance 3786 Sq.km.

4 Distance from SilcharMore than 21 km.

5 Area of village 336hectares
Important Fact and Figure of Irongmara village
6 Average annual rainfall 2500mm
7 Number of book 1 (one) no.

8 Population of village Female: 3386 (as per 2001 census)
Male : 3199
9 Total Scheduled Caste population 2245
Male: 1118
Female 1127
10 Other backward caste 3348
Male : 1603
Female: 1745
11 General 987
Male : 476
Female : 511
12 Total Scheduled tribe population 5
Male : 2
Female : 3
13 Area of land under agriculture 142 hectares
14 Major crops grown Paddy – 102
Potato – 12
Sugar cane – 8
Pineapple – 3
Jute – 4
Chilly – 13
15 Total unirrigated land 126.64 hectare
16 Number of education institution Primary school- 6
Middle school-1
Secondary school- 1
17 Senior secondary school Nil
18 Adult literacy center Nil
19 Number of training school Nil
20 Number of industrial school Nil
21 Total literacy rate More than:- 30%
Male literacy:- 23%
Female literacy:- 12%
22 Number of allopathic hospital Nil
23 Number of homeopathic hospital Nil
24 Number of homeopathic dispensary Nil
25 Number of ayurvedic hospital Nil
26 Number of ayurvedic dispensary NIL
27 Number of child maternity center Nil
28 Number of child maternity center Nil
29 Private nursing home Nil
30 Number of registered private medical practitioners Nil
31 Number of subsidized medical practitioners Nil
32 Drinking water facilities Tap water
Well water
Tank water
Tube well water
33 Freshwater reservoir facilities Nil
34 Total no. of post office 2 no’s
35 Telephones facilities Poorly developed
36 Telegraph facilities Poorly developed
37 College Nil
38 Engineering college Nil
39 Medical college Nil
40 I.T.I Nil
41 Computer institution Nil
42 Law college Nil
43 University 1 no’s
44 Teacher training college Nil
45 Polytechnic Nil
46 Bus and sumo services Well developed
47 Railway services Nil
48 Banking facilities Poorly developed
49 Number of commercial bank NIL
50 Co-operation commercial bank Nil
51 Credit facilities Nil
52 Recreational and culture facilities Nil
53 Sport clubs Nil
54 Stadium/auditorium hall Nil
55 Power supply Well developed
56 Newspaper and magazine Available
57 Income expenditure Data unavailable
58 Name of bank UCO bank
State bank
Assam Gramin Bikash bank
59 Wroth center Nil
60 Industrial area Nil
SUMMARY:-
Northeast India comprises eight states namely, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Tripura, Mizoram, Nagaland, and Sikkim inhabited by different race and cultural people. It is surrounded by Tibet, China and Bhutan and in the south byBangladeshand Myanmar and on the west Bengal and Bangladesh and in the east by chins and Myanmar. About 2/3 areas of region is hilly and 1/3 is plain.

State of Assam is in North –east India between latitude 28.18 and 24N and latitudes 89.46 and 97.4 and whole Assam can be classified different direct. Economy of Assam is mainly depending upon agriculture. About 74% of total population is engaged in agriculture. Total cultivable land is 35 lakh hector and 78% of its cultivable crops are paddy, vegetable, etc and about 17932 land is reserved forest.

Silchar is one of the important town located in cachar district of assam. It is a commercial center of hub which is back bone of cachar district. Totalpopulation of silchar municipal board area is 156948 according to 2001 census. Most of the people in silchar speak sylhetti a dialect of Bengali. It is largely based on the agrarian economy and to little extent on services and business. Most of the people live on farming and tea cultivation. Tea oil, bamboo, cane, rice and natural gas are the major contributors to Silchar’s economy.
Irongmara village is located in cachar district of Assam. It is one of the tehsil of Borjalenga block. It is located in between Silchar town and Hailakandi town. According to 2001 census, total population of Irongmara is 6,585 having different caste and communities. Main occupation of people ofIrongmara is cultivation and fishing. Irongmara village is a least developed area but after the inception of Assam University in its neighbor, the condition of the village is better than before and is in faster development.

CHAPTER- III
SOCIAL BACKGROUND OF RESPODENT
This chapter deals with socio economic condition of child labour. It includes caste, religion, age, language, educational qualificationand family structure of child labour. Classified data are presented in this chapter.

According to field study there are 50 children who are working for wages at Irongmara village. Out of 50 children 20 children are working in shops and 30 children areagricultural labourer.

In following I discuss socio-economic condition of respondent (children who are working to earn money or child labour.

CASTE CATEGORIES
Table III.1

Distribution of Respondents by Caste categories
Caste Categories No. of Respondents (%)
1. General 10 20%
2. Sehedule Caste 17 34%
3. OBC 23 50%
Total (%) 46 100%
Source: Field work
Above table shows that one fifth of respondents belongs to General Caste category and one third respondents belongs to S.C category and the rest respondents belongs to OBC category.

124015556388000
Number of Respondents (%)
Above chart indicates that 20% respondents are General Category and 34% respondents are S.C category and 46% respondents belongs to OBC category
AGE GROUP
Table III.2
Distribution by Age groups.Age group No of Respondents Total (%)
(In year) Hindus 8-10 Above table indicates that 29.4 % SC Respondents are in age group of 11-12 years, 23.5% SC respondents are in age group of 12-13 years, 17.6% SC respondents are in age group 10-11 years, 23.5% SC respondents are in age group of 13-14 years, and 5.8 SC respondents are in age group 8-10 years. 8.6% OBC respondents are in age group of 8-10 years, and 26.0% respondents are in age group of 10-11 years, and 30.4 OBC respondents are in age group of 11-12 years, and 13.0% OBC respondents are in age group of 12-13 years, and 21.7% OBC respondents are in age group of 13-14 years, and 10% General respondents are in age group of 8-10 years, and 20% General respondents are in age group of 12-13 years, and 40% General respondents are in age group of 13-14 years.

We observe that maximum respondents are engaged in work force belongs to age group of 11-12 years.

RELIGION
Table III.3
Distribution of religion in IrongmaraReligion No. of Respondents SC (%) OBC (%) General (%) Total (%)
Hindu 17 (100) 23 (100) 10 (100) 50 (100)
Total 17 (100) 23 (100) 10 (100) 50 (100)
Above Table shows all castes belongs to Hindu religion.

OTHER LANGUAGE SPEAKING
Language known Source: Field work
Above table indicates that 100% general respondents know Begali language and 305 are known Hindi language also. 1005 of S.C. respondents are known Benglai language and 16% S.C. respondents are also known Hindi language. 100% OBC respondents are alos know Bengali language and 14% also know Hindi language.
SEX GROUP
Table- III.8
Distribution of respondents family members by sex group.

Sex No. of respondents
Hindi
S.C. (%) General (%) Total (%)
105
Source: Field work
Above table indicates that 100% general respondents know Bengali language and 30% are known Hindi language also. 100% of S.C respondents are known Bengali language and 16% S.C. respondents are also know Hindi language. 100% OBC respondents are `~~~~~also know Bengali lanu
Sex group
Table-III.8
Distribution of respondents family members by sex group.

sex No . respondents
Hindu
S.C (%) OBC (%) General (%) Total
Male 32(42.10%) 51(44.73%) 22(43.13%) 105(43.56%)
Female 44(57.89) 63(55.26%) 29(56.86%) 136(56.43)
Total 76(100%) 114(100) 51(100) 241(100)%
Source: Field work
Above table reveals that 43.56% respondents family member are male and 56.43% respondents family member are female .HOUSE OWNERSHIP
Table –III .9
Distribution of respondents in term house ownership.House they live No . respondents
Hindu
General (%) S.C (%) OBC(%) Total
Own 9(90%) 17(100%) 23(100%) 49(98%)
Rented 1(10%) ___ ____ 1(2%)
Total 10(100%) 17(100) 23(100%) 50(100)
Source: Field work
Above table show that the general category respondents 98% are having own house and only 10% are living in rented house and SC and OBC are 100% living in their own house .And 2% are living in rented house.

HOUSE TYPE
Table –IIII.10
Distribution of respondents by house type
House type
No. respondent
Hindu
General (%) S.C(%) OBC(%) Total (%)
Assam type half brick wall and bamboo 1(10%) 2(11.76%) 3(13.04%) 6(12%)
Assam type with bamboo and mud 2(20%) 4(23.52%) 7(30.43%) 13(23%)
Only bambo3(30%) 5(29.41% 5(21.73%) 13(26%)
Only mud and bamboo. 4(40%) 6(35.29%) 8(34.78%) 18(36%)
Total 10(100%) 17(100%) 23(100) 50(100)
Source : field work
Above table shows that 12% respondents are living in Assam type and half wall bamboo made house.26% respondent’s family is living in Assam type with bamboo and mud house.

NUMBER OF LIVING ROOM
Table –III.11
Distribution of respondents by living room.No of living Room No of respondents
Hindu
General (%) S.C(%) OBC Total
1 3(30%) 8(47%) 12(52.75) 23(46%)
2 4(40%) 5(29%) 6(26%) 15(30%)
3 3(30%) 4(23.5) 5(21.7%) 12(24%)
Total(%) 10(100%) 17(100%) 23(100%) 50(100%)
Source: field work
Above table show that 30% of general respondents have only 1 room and 40% general respondents are having only 2room and 30% are having only 3 rooms. And 47.0% SC respondents are having only 1 room and 29% SC respondents are having only 2 rooms. Moreover 23.5% Sc respondents have 3 room only . And 55.7% of OBC respondents are having only 1 room and 26.0% OBC respondents are having are only room and 21.7% OBC respondents are having only rooms.

ELECTRICITY FACILITY
Table –III.12
Distribution of respondents by electricity facility .Electricity facility No of respondents
Hindu
General (%) S.C(%) OBC(%) Total
Yes 3(30%) 6(35%) 9(39%) 18(36%)
No 7(70%) 11(64%) 14(82%) 23(64%)
Total 10(100%) 17(100%) 23(23(100%) 50(100%)
Source: field work
Above table source 30% general category respondents have electricity and SC category 355 respondents have electricity facility and OBC 39% are having electricity facility and the rest don’t’ have electricity facility.

WATER SUPPLY FACILITY
Table –III.13
Distribution of respondents by water supply facility
Water supply facility No of respondents
Hindu
General (%) S.C(%) OBC(%) Total(%)
Yes 3(30%) 5(29.4%) 8(44.77%) 16(32%)
No 7(77%) 12(70.5%) 15(65.2%) 43(68%)
Total 10(100%) 17(100%) 23(100%) 50(100%)
.

Source: field work
Data show that almost 30% of general respondents have water facility and and (29% ) S.C have water supply facility and among OBCs (47%) are having facility .7% general category have not water supply S.C(12%) and OBC) do not have water facility .

SOURCE OF DRINKING WATER
Table-III.14
Distribution respondents by the source of drinking water .source of drinking water No of respondents
Hindu
General (%) S.C(%) OBC(%) Total(%)
Tube well 1(33.33%) 3(17.64%) 3(37.5%) 7(43%)
Well 1(33.33%) 1(5.88%) 1(12%) 3(18.75%)
Water supply 1(33.33%) 1(5.88) 4(50%) 6(37.75%)
Total 3(100%) 5(100%) 8(100%) 16(100)
Source: field work
Above table show that 43% respondents use tube well water. And 18.75% respondents use well water and 37.5% are using water supply.
Sanitation Facility
Table-III 1.5
Distribution of respondents by sanitation facility.Sanitation Facility
No of respondents
Hindu
General (%) S.C(%) OBC(%) Total(%)
Sanitary latrine ——- ——– ——– ——–
Kacha latrine 9(90%) 15(80.22%) 19(82.60%) 43(86%)
No latrine 1(10%) 2(11%) 4(17.39%) 7(14%)
Total (%) 10(100%) 17(100%) 23(100%) 50(100%)
Above table show that 86% are using kucha Latrine , and 14% have no latrine . They don’ts have sanitary latrine . we find that (14%) don’t have no latrine , they are not aware that different daises can be emerge.

Education of family member
Table : III.16
Distribution of respondents about guardian education .Education qualification No . of respondents
General (%) S.C(%) OBC(%) Total(%)
Literate 14(27.4%) 19(25%) 31(27.19%) 64(27. 70%)
Illiterate 37(72.5%) 57(75%) 73(64.02%) 167(72.29%)
Total % 51(100%) 76(100%) 104(100%) 231(100%)

Sources : field work
Above table shows that 25% of SC category is literate and 27.4% are literate and27.17% of OBC category is literate . Again 75% of SC category member illerate and General 72.5% are illiterate and 64.02% of OBC category illiterate.

MARITAL STATUS
Table: – III.17
Distribution of respondents family member by marital status.

MARITAL STATUS
No. of respondents
General (%) S.C(%) OBC(%) Total(%)
Male Female Male Female male Female Married 11
(50%) 17
(58.62%) 14
(43.75%) 16
(36.36%) 36
(70.58%) 39
(61.90) 133
(55.18)
Unmarried 11
(50%) 12
(41.37%) 18
(36.25%) 28
(36.63%) 15
(29.41%) 24
(38.09%) 108
(44.81%)
total 22
(100%) 29
(100%) 32
(100%) 44
(100%)
51
(100%) 63
(100%) 241
(100%)
Source : field work
Table show that SCs 43.75% member are married and 36.36% member are unmarried , and OBC category 29.41% are married and 38,09% are unmarried , and category 50% are marrie and 41.37% are unmarried.

Ownership of land
Table:- III.18
Distribution of respondents by ownership of land . No. of respondents
General (%) S.C(%) OBC(%) Total(%)
YES 17(100%) 9(90%) 23(100%) 49(90%)
NO ____ 1(10%) _____ 1(10%)
Total 17(100%) 10(100%) 23(100%) 50(100%)
Source : field work
Above table shows 100% of SC respondents are having land. General 90% and 100% are having land, 10% general respondents don’t have land.

LAND HOLDING
Table :- III.19
Distribution of respondents by land holding .Land hlding in biga and katha No. of respondents
General (%) S.C(%) OBC(%) Total(%)
One or half bigha3(30%) 6(35.29%) 5(21.73%) 14(28%)
2;3 Bigha ___ 7(41.17%) 11(47.82%) 18(36%)
5; 10 katha7(70%) 4(23.52%) 7(30.43%) 18(36%)
total 10(100%) 17(100%) 23(100%) 50(100%)
Source: field work
Above table shows that 35.29% S member have 1 half Bighas land , 21.73% of OBC category have 1 ; half Bigahas land and Sc 41.17% have 2 or 3 Bigahas land, OBC 30.49% have 2 or 3Bighas land , SC 23.52% have 5 or 10 kaths land , OBC 30.43%have 5 or 10 katha , and general 70% have5 or 10 katha.

OCCUPATION
Table III.20
Distribution of respondents ‘Family members’ occupation.

Occupation No of respondents
SC % OBC % GENERAL % TOTAL
M% F% T% M% F% T% M% F% T% Agriculture
Labourer7
41.17 5
29.41 12
35.29 8
34.78 6
26.08 14
30.43 —– — — 52
26%
Daily
Labourer5
29.41 — 5
14.70 7
30.43 — 7
15.21 5
50% — 5
25% 34
17%
Vegetable
Labourer1
5.88 — 1
2.94 — — — 1
10% — 1
5% 4
2%
Pulling Tala3
17.64 — 3
8.82 4
17.34 — 4
8.69 3
30% — 3
15% 20
10%
Rickshaw 1
5.88 — 1
2.94 1
4.34 — 1
2.17 1
10% — 1
5% 6
3%
Working in Tea Garden — — — 3
13.04 10
43.47 13
28.26 — — — 26
13%
House Wife — 12
70.58 12
35.29 — 7
30.43 7
15.21 — 10
100% 10
50% 58
29%
TOTAL (%) 17
100 17
100
34
100 23
100 23
100 46
100 10
100 10
100 20
100 200
100
Sources: Field Work
Table shows that both male and female belonging to SC category 35.29% occupation is Agriculture. And 14.70% male and female belonging to SC category members in daily wage labour and 35.29% member are housewife. In such case of OBC category both males and females 30.43% occupation is based in Agriculture. And 30.43% OBC male members occupation is daily wage earner, General 50% are same, 2.94% are SC member occupation is vegetable vender. SCs 2.94% members occupations is Pulling Rickshaw, 2.17% OBC members, General 5%, 35.29%, SC female members are house wife and 15.21% OBC female members are house wife.
GADGET AVAILABLE
Table – III.21
Distribution of respondents by gadget available
Gadget available No of respondents
General (%) SC (%) OBC (%) Total (%)
Wall Clock
4 (40%) 9 (52%) 11 (47.8) 25 (50%)
Wall Clock
;
Radio
— 2(52.9%) 11(47.8%) 5 (10%)
Table Clock
;
Radio
TV
+ Fan
— — — —
Wall Clock
Table Clock
Radio
; Fan
— 1 (5.8%) — 1 (2%)
Wall Clock,
TV — 2 (11.7%) 2 (8.6%) 4 (8%)
Nothing 6 (60%) 3 (17.6%) 7 (30.4%) 16 (32%)
Total 10 (100%) 17 (100%) 23 (100%) 50 (100%)
Source : Field Work
Above Table shows that 40% General category respondent have wall clock gadget only, and SC respondents having 52.9% and OBC 47.8%, SC 11.7% have wall clock ; radio and 13% OBC have Radio and fan. 5.8% SC respondents having wall clock, radio and fan. Among OBCs 8.6% have wall clock ; TV and the rest 60% General have nothing and 70% SC and 30.4% OBC have to gadget.

WORKING IN SHOP AND AGRICULTURE
Table III.22
Distribution of respondents in different work place.Working Place No. of respondents
General (%)
SC (%) OBC (%) Total (%)
Tea Shop 2 (20%)
2 (11.7%) 5 (21.7%) 9 (18%)
Restaurant 2 (20%)
— 2 (8.6%) 4 (8%)
Vegetable Shop 3 (30%)
2 (11.7%) 3 (13%) 8 (16%)
Black Smith —
2 (11.7%) — 2 (4%)
Glossary Shop 1 (10%)
2 (17.6%) 2 (8.6%) 6 (12%)
Xerox Center 2 (20%)
2 (11.7%) — 4 (8%)
Agriculture —
6(35.2%) 11 (47.8%) 17 (34%)
Total 10 (100%)
17 (100%) 23 (100%) 50 (100%)
Source: Field Work
Above Table shows that 20 % respondents belonging to General category is working in Tea shop. And 30% General caste respondents are engaged in Vegetable shop. And 20 % General category respondents are working in Zerox cente, and rest are working in Glossary and Agricultural sector. 11% SC respondents are working in Shop, and 11% SC respondents are working in Tea shop, and 11.7% SC respondents are working as a Black smith, and 17.6% SC respondents are working in Glossary shop, and 35% SC respondents are working in Agricultural field. Among OBCs 21.7% are working in Teashop and 8.6% of OBC are working in Vegetable shop, And 8.6% of OBC respondents are working in Glossary shop, And 47.8% of OBC respondents are working in Agricultural field.

DURATION OF WORK
Table-III.23
Distribution of respondents by duration of work.Duration of work in year No. of respondents
General (%)
SC (%) OBC (%) Total (%)
1-2
4 (40%) 6 (35.25%) 8 (34.7%) 18 (36%)
2-3
3(30%) 3(17.6%) 5(21.7%) 11(22%)
3-4
2(20%) 4(23.5%) 4(17.3%) 10(20%)
4-5
1(10%) 2(11.7%) 3(13.0%) 6(12%)
5-6
— 2(7%) 4(17.3%) 6(12%)
Total (%)
10(100%) 17(100%) 23(100%) 50(100%)
Source: Field work
Above Table indicates that 40% General category respondents are working since 1-2 years and 30% respondents are working since 2-3 years, 20% and 10% respectably since 3-4, 4-5 years. Among SCs 35% respondents are working since 1-2 years and 17% SC respondents are working since 2-3 years and 23%, 11%,11% respondents are working respectively 3-4, 4-5,5-6 years.

Person who engaged children to work for wages or who introduce them to work:
Table – III.24
Distribution of respondents of 1st introduction to the work.No. of respondents
General (%)
SC (%) OBC (%) Total (%)
Father 5(50%)
9(52.9%) 10(43.4%) 24(48%)
Mother 4(40%)
6(35.2%) 9(39.1%) 19(28%)
Neighbor
Introduced 1(10%)
2(11.7%) 3(13.0%) 6(12%)
By himself —
— 1(4.3%) 1(2%)
Total 10(100%)
17(100%) 23(100%) 50(100%)
Sources: Field Work
Above table shows that 50% respondents of General category are introduced to work as labour by their father and 40% General respondents had been introduced to work place by their mothers and rest are introduced by neighbors. Among SC category 52.9% respondents had been introduced by their father. And 35.2% of SC respondents had been introduced to work place by their mother and 43.4% of OBC respondents had been introduced to work place by their father, and 39.1% of OBC category respondents are introduced to work place by their father, and 13.0% OBC category are introduced to work place by their neighbor.

HOURS OF WORKING
Table III.25
Distribution of working by the hours of working.Working in hours No. of respondents
General (%)
SC (%) OBC (%) Total (%)
10 3 (30%)
5 (29.4%) 5 (26%) 14 (28%)
12 4 (31.0%)
8 (47%) 11(47.8%) 23 (46%)
16 3 (30%)
4 (23.5%) 6 (26%) 13 (26%)
Total 10 (100%)
17 (100%) 23 (100%) 50 (100%)
Sources: Field Work
Above Table reveals that 30 % General respondents are working up to 10 hours and 40 % General respondents are working 12 hours and 31% General respondents are working 16 hours. Among SCs 29% respondents are working 10 hours and 47% SCs respondents are working 12 hours and among SCs 23% respondents are working 16 hours. Among OBCs 26% respondents are working 10 hours and 47% OBC respondents are working 12 hours.

Family Income
Table III.26
Distribution of respondents by their family income
Yearly Income No. of respondents
SC (%)
General (%) OBC (%) Total (%)
5000-10000 1(5.88%)
1(20%) 2(8.69%) 4(8%)
10000-15000 2(11.76%)
3(30%) 8(34.78%) 13(26%)
15000-20000 7(41.17%)
3(30%) 4(17.39%) 14(28%)
20000-25000 4(23.52%)
2(20%) 5(21.73%) 11(22%)
25000-30000 3(17.67%)
1(10%) 4(17.39%) 8(16%)
Total 17(100%)
10(100%) 23(100%) 50(100%)
Sources: Field work
Above table shows that 5.88% of SC respondents family income is 5000-10000 and 11.67% SC respondents family income is 10000-15000 and 41.17% SC respondents family income is 15000-20000 and 23.52% respondents family income is 20000-25000 and 17.67% SC respondents family income is 250000-30000. And 20% General respondents family income is 5000-10000 and 30% General respondents family income is 10000-15000 and 30% also family income is Rs. 15000-20000, and 20% respondents family income is 20000-25000, and 10% General respondents family income is 25000-30000, and OBC 8.69% family income is Rs. 5000-10000, and 34.78% OBC respondents family income is 10000-15000, and 17.39% OBC respondents family income is 20000-25000, and 17.39% OBC respondents family income is Rs. 25000-30000.

OPENION OF RESPONDENTS –REGARDING CHILD LABOUR INSTEAD OF GOING TO SCHOOL
Table III.27
distribution respondents by their opinion towards weather a child should work instead of going to school.

Child should work instead of going to school No. of respondents
General (%)
SC (%) OBC (%) Total (%)
Yes 6 (60%)
12 (70.58%) 14 (60.35%) 32 (64%)
No 4 (40%)
5 (29.41%) 9 (39.13%) 18 (36%)
Total 10 (100%)
17 (100%) 23 (100%) 50 (100%)
Sources: Field Work
Above table shows that 60% General, 70.58% SCs and 60.35%OBCs respondents thing that child should work instead of going to school. 40% General, 29.41% SCs 39.13% OBCs respondents thing that child should go to school rather going to work.

SUMMARY
In this chapter,  I discussed about socio economic background of respondents in Irongmara village, In case of age group of SC category 29.4% are under 10-11 years of age and 23.5% under age group 12-13 and OBC category respondents are most in age group of 11-12 that is 30% and 26% under age group 10-11 year. Most general category respondents under age of 13-14 that is 40% and rest 10%, 20% under age group of 10-12 years, 11-12 years. In case of religion all respondents are known to Bengali language and 70% and 30% are known to Hindi and Bengali. In case of education about half of respondents are illiterate.

It has been observed that most of respondents stopped their studies after primary level. In case of reason for discontinuation most significant cause is due to bad economic condition and due to their father’s death.

In case of family income SC category 30.29% respondents family income is 10000- 15000. In case of general category family income is also 10000-15000. In case of ownership of house 98% are living in their own house and 36% are living in mud and bamboo made house.

In case of electricity facility only 36 person have electricity facility and 64% do not have electricity facility in their home. In case of land holding among SCs is 35.29% have one and half Bigha land, 41% have only two to three bighas of land, 23.52% have only 5 and 10 katha. Among general category 21% have one and half begha 47.82% have two to three bigha only and 30.43% have only 5 to 10 Katha in case of cultivation land and 41.73% person have cultivable land and general does not have cultivable land in their possession.

In case of God gets most of the respondents have radio wall clock only it reveals that their living standard is very low. In case of workplace most of respondents are engaged in shops and agricultural sector and all general respondents are knowing working in different kinds of shop and in case duration of War 36% respondents are working since one year and 22% respondents are working since 2 year and 20% respondents are working since 3 years and 12% respondents are working since 4 years.
Most of the respondents had been introduced to their workplace by their parents and some of them are introduced by never as in case of working hour 28% respondents are work after 10 hours and 46% are working up to 12 hours and 26% respondents are working up to 16 hours.

From above analysis it has been observed that most of the respondents are working as a child labour are seen to be illiterate and they belong to lower class as well as to below poverty line.

CHAPTER- 4
EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND OF CHILD LABOUR
In this chapter I will disscuss about educational background of respondents which include educational qualification and their family members cause of discontinuation of study and educational background.

EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION
Table- IV.1
Distribution of respondents by education
Education Qualification No. of respondents
General (%)
SC (%) OBC (%) Total (%)
Literate 7(14%)
10(20%) 11(22%) 28
Illiterate 3(6%)
7(14%) 12(24%) 22
Total 10(100%)
17(100%) 23(100%) 50
Sources: Field Work
The table shows that near about half of the respondents are Illiterate and the rest half are literate.
EDUCATION OF FAMILY MEMBERS
Table IV.2
Distribution of respondents about guardian education.Education Qualification No. of respondents
General (%)
SC (%) OBC (%) TOTAL (%)
Literate 14 (27.4%)
19 (25%) 31 (27.19%) 64 (27.70%)
Illiterate 37 (72.5%)
57 (75%) 73 (64.02%) 167(72.29%)
Total (%) 51 (100%)
76 (100%) 104 (100%) 231 (100%)
Sources: Field Work
The table shows that 25% SC category is literate and 27.4% are illiterate and 27.19% of OBC category is literate. 75% of SC category members are illiterate and among general category 72.5% are illiterate and 64.02% of OBC category is illiterate.

Summary
It has been observed that only 56% of the respondents illiterate but the educational qualification is too low as they have no passed even H.S.L.C examination at the time it has been noticed that respondents parents are also not much educated. The main reason behind the illiteracy and lower educational qualification of the respondents and the parents are seen to the four economic condition of them and some family constraints and some of them are orphans. Moreover in case of some respondents it has been noticed that parents are not much aware about the future of their children. They considered that getting education is not much fruitful for them and they wanted to make their children independent by doing labour instead of going to school or any other educational institution ultimately support their family economically. Most of the parents consider that by doing labour from a low age may help them to uplift their economic and social status and group of respondents which wanted to resume their study they are of the view that because of economic and household constraints the current go for resuming their studies again.

CHAPTER 5
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
The study child labour in Irongmara village reveals many problems cause and consequences with the help of structured interview schedule using purposive sampling methods. It includes some review of literature on child labour in this final chapter and effort has been made to present in brief  important findings of study which are as follows:-
(A) Study shows their OBC and SC category child labour are more than general category that is 46% and 45%
 (B) Some children 28% of respondents working as a child labour belong to age group of 11-12 years.

(C) Study shows that 34% of respondents are working in agriculture and the rest are working in different kinds of shop in Iron Man market under the age group of 14 years.

(D) Quite some 38% respondent working as child labour due to poverty.

(E) Around 16% respondents are working as child labour due to their father death which force them to work under tender age.

(F) Around 44% respondents are illiterate because they are not getting any opportunity for study but still they want to resume their study.

(G) Most of 32% respondents have left their study after primary school.

(H) 30% of respondents discontinued their study because of their poor economic condition.

(I) Highest number of respondents are leaving in katchha houses made of mud and bamboo moreover 62% of respondents don’t have electricity facility at their home.

(J) 34% respondents family income depends on agriculture and 20% respondents family income depends upon pullingtella and rickshaw. They don’t have other scope for earning and maintaining their livelihood.

(K) 36% of respondents duration of working is 1-2 years.

(L)  Highest number of respondents used to gossip with friends and parents after reaching home.

(M) 60% of respondents parents are not much aware about future of their children.

(N) 74% of respondents gardens are not aware about child labour prohibition act.

To conclude it can be said that practice of child labour is not only a problem of urban areas but also a problem of rural areas which create a big burden for the society as a whole it has been observed that because of the poor economic condition children are forced to go for work although there may be interested in continuing their study children are considered to be the most vulnerable vice-a-versa productive for future but it has been observed that children who are involved in different sector as a labourer are seen to be neglected and exploited  child labourer are not enjoying full freedom and development opportunities equally.

RECOMMANDATION
Children are most vulnerable resources for a country therefore enough care should be taken of them in every aspect in other in order to protect the children’s the Government of India passed an act. That is the child labour prohibition Act 1986 according to the age those who are found guilty of practicing child labour he or she would be impression for three months and they have to pay fine Rs. 20000 as a violotion as the child fine of the act. But this law is seems to be only within ink and paper because child labour is still practicing regularly in our society. If child labour has to be stop then the government should give importance on the following points given below:
(A)  Government should give special attention for eradication of corruption because corruption is the root cause of all social problem.

(B) Government should take special action for eradication of poverty by providing funds and working facility to the rural people because poverty is the root cause of child labour.

(C) Government should provide special aid fund to those children who have not attend 14 years of age those who don’t have their own parents and belongs to below poverty line..

(D) Government should make special policy and programs by observing the problems of a particular area.

(E) Government should give monitory fund NGO those who are working on child labour control.

(F) Government should make special branch  special branch to look weather government policies are fully implemented or not.

(G) Government should open special school for Poor families children’s.

(H) Government should make clients and programmes for making Awareness of rural people about education.

People’s participation is very much necessary in eradication of child labour it is the duty of every single citizen to avoid that child labour practice and fight for government and people both should go hand in hand to tackle the evil practice of child labour from society.

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