Effects of imperialism on the Rwandan genocide
There is a great deal of history in the country of Rwanda. The first people to live there were the group called Twa. By the 10th century, Hutu farmers were living there as well. Tutsi warriors finally came after the 14th century, arriving with there cattle. Tutsi created a monarchy by the 16th century. Every tribe had a common language used to communicate with each other, as well as a common culture, and race issues were not a problem until the 20th century.
Germany became the original European superpower to colonize land in Rwanda back in 1899, managing it through their king at the time. In 1916 the Belgians gained power and control, during World War I. Belgium received it as a League of Nations mandate in 1919 and continued indirect rule but restructured the system to increase ethnic divisions. The Tutsi were the Belgians favorites, more than the Hutu and Twa, which created an insane amount of problems in future times including race issues between tribes. The Belgium made Rwanda a UN trust territory in 1945. Tensions were rising when the Hutu were protesting against the Tutsi for voting and other rights in the 1950s. The violence quickly escalated after the Hutu sub chief was attacked by Tutsi rebels. Many Tutsis were left dead or if they were lucky, escaped to surrounding countries. Troops from Belgium got involved and created a policy reversal, which created a government run by the Hutu. Monarchy ended in 1961 with more African countries becoming democratic. Rwanda become independent in 1962, when it split into two separate countries, Rwanda and Burundi
Tutsi rebels did not let up with the attacks of their own on the Hutu throughout the duration of the 60s. The First Republic, run by Hutu, came to an end with a 1973 rebellion managed by the Hutu Minister of Defense, Juvenal Habyarimana. Tutsi rebels in Uganda created the Rwandan Patriotic Front, also known as the RPF, and attacked Rwanda with an invasion in 1990. The troubles ended for the time being when an agreement treaty was signed in 1993. But the peace was destroyed once again in April 1994 when president Habyarimana’s aircraft was gunned down. To this day there is still no evidence that it was the Tutsis who shot the plane down, but they took the blame either way. “Hutu politicians opposed to the late president Juvenal Habyarimana were targeted in the first few days after the plane crash, which has yet to be satisfactory explained. But now the killings seem to be directed purely against Tutsis,” according to Hilsum. At this point the Second Republic had come to an end, and the 100 days of ruthless genocidal massacres had began. Hundreds of thousands ran and escaped to the nearby countries of Burundi, Uganda, Tanzania, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (back then known as Zaire). The RPF battled dirty and unclean conditions. The Tutsi began fighting back with attacks against the Hutu refugees in 1996, and Hutu soldiers answered with more violence towards the Tutsi. Militia troops were sent by Rwanda to take out the Zairian soldiers helping the Hutus. Many of the refugees were returned to Rwanda, but others stayed in order to attack northwestern Rwanda using guerilla warfare. Around 124,000 people were sent to court for crimes committed during the genocide. When the president resigned, the first Hutu president was elected in 2000. There are still trials going on today, for the brutal and relentless crimes from the genocide.