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EXPLORING THE LITERAL TRANSLATION IN THE SHORT STORY “???????” BY KHIN HNIN YU
SUBMITTED BY:
HSU MYAT AUNG ENG IV-25
THEINT HONEY HTUN ENG IV-45
PHYOE EI ZIN LIN ENG IV-46
WAR WAR WAI LWIN ENG IV-50
PANN MUDRA ENG IV-62
DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH
UNIVERSITY OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES
MYANMAR
JULY, 2018
CONTENTS
ABSTRACT
ACKNOWLEGEMENTS
CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
Background to the Study
Scope of the Study
Area of the Study
Organisation of the Study
Aims and Objectives
LITERATURE REVIEW
What is Translation?
Literal Translation
Biographies of the Author and the Translator
Biography of the Author “Khin Hnin Yu”
Biography of the Translator “Ma Thanegi”
Synopsis of the Short Story “???????”
RESEARCH METHOLOGY
Research Questions
DATA ANALYSIS
Examples of Word to Word Translation
Examples of Group to Group Translation
Examples of Clause to Clause Translation
Examples of Sentence to Sentence Translation
FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
Categories of Literal Translation found in “???????”
CONCLUSION
REFERENCES
E-RESOURCES
APPENDIX
ABSTRACT
This study intends to analyse the use of literal translation in a short story based on Newmark’s (1998) theory. This paper focuses on Khin Hnin Yu’s short story “???????” and its translated version “Trodden Flower” by Ma Thanegi. According ot Peter Newmark (1998), in literal translation, the SL grammatical forms are converted to their nearest target language equivalents, but the lexical words are translated out of context. The use of literal translation in the short story “Trodden Flower” was analysed and classified into four categories- word to word, group to group, clause to clause, sentence to sentence. In the study, it has been clearly figured out that literal translation is mainly used by the translator to highlight the author’s craft of writing the original version. This paper attempts to understand the role of literal translation in the field of translation studies. Moreover, to some extent, this paper will be helpful to both teachers and students as they can gain great benefits concerned with translation studies in studying literal translation.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
We would like to show our very profound gratitude to individuals who helped us to implement this term paper project. Firstly, we would like to show our great appreciation to Sayagyi Dr. Kyi Shwin, the Rector of Yangon University of Foreign Languages for giving us a great opportunity and permission to do this term paper. We also would like to show appreciation to Dr. Mi Mi Aung and Dr. Yin Myo Thu, the Pro-rectors of YUFL.

We are gratefully indebted to Dr. Ni Ni Aung, Professor and Head of the English Department, YUFL for her great support for this term paper as well as Tr. Daw Khin Khin Myint, our class coordinator. Moreover, we would like to give a lot of thanks to our Senior Lecturer of the English Department, Tr. Daw Yee Yee Lwin for teaching us the background knowledge and guidance related with this term paper. This term paper would not have been successfully completed without the support, help and patience of our group supervisor, Tr. Daw Kyi Thar Win. Moreover, we would like to acknowledge all the teachers at the English Department of YUFL for supporting us with their very reliable comments and precious advice to establish this term paper and broadening our knowledge while we were final year students majoring in English at YUFL.

INTRODUCTION
In the world where language is everywhere, translation plays an important role as it allows ideas and information to spread across cultures. There are a lot of definitions for the term “translation” by scholars and by studying those, translation can be simply understood as the process of rendering messages by considering both of the Source Language (SL) and Target Language (TL). Moreover, concerned with the types of translation, literary translation cannot be considered as an easy work because it consists of translating poems, play, literary books, songs, novels, literary articles and so on. Among them, in order to translate a short story successfully, a translator needs to understand the message that the author wants to reveal to the reader and the complete knowledge of both SL and TL. Besides, a translator should know that each language has its own rules which cannot be applied to the others as languages are not identical to each other. So, as a translator, it is vital to consider several methods and procedures of translation when a short story.

Background to the Study
Nowadays, there are a lot of perspectives and classifications concerning the approaches to translation. The quality of translation depends on the way a translator approaches it and the methods being used. Moreover, concerned with literal translation, it is necessary to comprehend that literal translation does require great skills or expertise as translating a complex text word by word while keeping the original meaning is a difficult matter. It is also important for a translator to consider which circumstances are suitable for literal translation as well as choice of words. In the translated version of “???????”; “Trodden Flower” by Ma Thanegi, the literal translation of words, groups, clauses and sentences is focused on and studied through comparing the original short story by Khin Hnin Yu with its translated version.

Scope of the Study
The scope of the study focuses on the application of literal translation which ranges from word to word, group to group, clause to clause, to sentence to sentence used by the translator in the short story “Trodden Flower” written by Khin Hnin Yu.

Area of the Study
The area of the study can be categorized as the translation of literary texts specifically short stories.

Organisation of the Study
This term paper is organized into eight chapters. In Chapter 1, there is an introduction section which includes the background of the study, the scope, the area, the organization and the aims and objectives of the study. In Chapter 2, it presents the literature review which is divided into two parts. In the first part, it provides the meaning of translation, and literal translation. For the second part, it includes the biographies of the original author and the translator. Chapter 3 deals with the research methodology which is divided into research procedures and research questions. Chapter 4 presents the detailed attention to the data analysis and Chapter 5 is concerned with findings and discussion. Chapter 6 conveys the conclusion or the summary of the above chapters. The last two chapters are about the references and the appendix of the short story.
Aims and Objectives
This study aims at analyzing literal translation used by the translator Ma Thanegi in her English translation of “Trodden Flower” written by Khin Hnin Yu. The objectives of the study are to examine how the translator used literal translation in the short story and to identify the categories of literal translation ranging from word to word through group to group, clause to clause to sentence to sentence.

2. LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 What is Translation?
“Translation” is defined by scholars in several ways. According to Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, translation is the process of changing something that is written or spoken into another language. According to Catford (1965), translation is an operation performed on languages: a process of substituting a text in one language for a text in another. Nida and Taber (1974) explain that translating consists of reproducing in the receptor language by the closest natural equivalent of the source language message, first in terms of meaning, and secondly in terms of style. According to Larson (1984), translation consists of studying the lexicon, grammatical structure, communication situation, and cultural context of the source language text, analyzing it in order to determine its meaning, then reconstructing the same meaning using the lexicon and grammatical structure which appropriate in the receptor language and its cultural context. In short, he states that translation has three steps: studying the source text, analyzing it and reconstructing the meaning. Newmark (1988) defines translation as rendering the meaning of a text into another language in the way that the author intended the text. Manser (1996) states that translation is the activity of changing something spoken or written into another language. All in all, in studying the definitions stated by scholars, translation can be simply understood as the process of rendering messages by considering both of the Source Language (SL) and Target Language (TL).
2.2 Literal Translation
What is literal translation?
According to Collins Dictionary, literal translation is one in which each word of the original work is translated to the nearest target language rather than giving the meaning of each expression or sentence using words that sound natural. It’s very similar to word for word translation that relies on the direct transfer of a text from the source language (SL) into a grammatical and meaningful text in the target language (TL). In this kind of translation, the translator mainly focuses on following the linguistic rules of the TL. It is most commonly used when translating between two different languages of the same family such as French and Italian where the same culture is shared. Although it has narrow scope of usage, it is included as the preferred way of translating in functional contexts because it takes emphasis on preserving the original meaning of the original context than attaining stylish elegance which can be referred to legal translation. Metaphase is considered as another word for literal translation. Sometimes, the translation cannot be acceptable if it conveys a word by word translation of the non-technical type of source which is basically a misleading idiom. According to Vinay and Darbelent, literal translation ranges from one word to one word, group to group, clause to clause or sentence to sentence.

2.3 Biographies of the Author and the Translator
2.3.1 Biography of the Author “Khin Hnin Yu”
Khin Hnin Yu (Pen name)
Her birth name is Khin Su. She was born on 7 September 1925, in the Irrawaddy delta. She is a daughter of U Ba and Daw Thein Tin and a cousin of U Nu, the former Burmese Minister. Khin Hnin Yu went to Myoma Girls National High School called B.E.H.S (3) Dagon. She didn’t have to finish her formal education as she became a source of income for her family during World War II. However, she could manage to achieve a bachelor degree in arts. She got married to Colonel Kyaw Thaung in 1950 and got ten children.

She entered the world of literature with her first short story ‘The Wild ‘which was published in 1947. Her first novel ‘Remnant Leaf of Late Summer’ was published in 1956. Her works were portrayed as novels based on the reality of human nature. Her purpose of writing novels is that she wanted readers to bump into the way she had learned and witnessed the unbalance and discrimination of humanity. Her works are sixty seven novels and over one hundred short stories overall. She won the National Literary Award twice, once for her first short story collection “Reflections in the mirror” and another for her novel “Mya Kyar Phyu”
2.3.2 Biography of the Translator “Ma Thanegi”
Ma Theingi (Translator)
Ma Theingi in not only an author but also an English translator as various topics including Khin Hnin Yu’s works. She is a contributing editor to Myanmar Times and editor of Enchanting Myanmar, a travel magazine.

She was born in 1946. She went to Methodist English High School, Yangon State School of Fine Arts, Yangon Institute of Economics and Institute of Foreign Languages.

She honourably worked as a personal assistant for the current State Counselor, Daw Aung San Suu Kyi. Then, she arrested in Insein prison in 1989 and was released in 1992. She now lives in China Town.

Although she worked as a translator, she doesn’t like to translate because it is so restricted according to her interview with Myanmar Times. She translated Khin Hnin Yu’s works because her friend “Mi Kyaw Thaung” who is a daughter of Khin Hnin Yu asked for favour. The translated version of ‘Trodden Flower’ is extracted from “Stories from her heart “. The earnings from the book sale were determined to donate the needy places in Myanmar.

2.4 Synopsis of the Short Story “???????”
The story is about a girl named Khin Lay who is compared to “Trodden Flower” that takes the role of a substitute for Jasmine only for the time Jasmine is not available in Royal Palace. In the story, a country girl fell in love with a freedom fighter and left her mother at village to accompany her husband. After independence, her husband became an aid to the minister and later betrayed her. At last, she came back to her mother.
In this story, Khin Hnin Yu demonstrated the impermanent nature of human life. It was first published on Myawaddy Magazine in March, 1955 and in July 2009, it was also included in Khin Hnin Yu’s “Stories from her Heart” book (Duel Language Book- English-Myanmar Edition) published by Lettwebaw Publishing House. The author picked this short story as her favourite in a collection by seven women writers titled “Creater’s Choice”. It is also one of her favourites from the book ‘Reflections in the Mirror’
3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Procedures
This paper is conducted by several steps. First of all, the topic of the short story is chosen and the short story selected for the paper is “???????” of Khin Hnin Yu which has its translated version, “Trodden Flower” by Ma Thanegi. In the next step, Myanmar and English versions of the short story are compared to study the categories of literal translation ranging from word to word, group to group, clause to clause to sentence to sentence. Each category is ecplained by comparing the source language with the targer language in the secton for data analysis. Then, the percentage of categories is shown with the table. Finally, the tables showing data on four categories of literal translation and the original version of the short story, together with its translated version are given in appendix.

Research Questions
What categories of literal translation are found in the short story “???????” and its English translation “Trodden Flower”?
What are the most used category and the least used category of literal translation by the translator?
Do they play an important role in translating the short story into English?
4. DATA ANALYSIS
This section concerns with literal translation applied in the categories of word, group, clause and sentence level translation. The data in this paper has been analysed based on literal translation suggested by Newmark (1988).The detailed analysis of literally translation is categorised as word to word, group to group, clause to clause and sentence to sentence. The sample analysis of literal translation is demonstrated as follow.

4.1 Examples of Word to Word
Word to Word
Example 1
Source Text: ?????????? ?????????????? ??????? ?????????????
Target Text: The winter of the countryside was chilly and crisp.

In this example, the word ‘??????’ means ‘winter’. Thus, it is categorised into ‘word to word’ category of the literal translation.

Example 2
Source Text: ?????????????? ???????????? ???????????????????
Target Text: She gave up and learned against Thakin Kyaw Zeya, tears in
her eyes.

In this example, the word ‘???????????’ means ‘tears’. Thus, it is categorised into ‘word to word’ category of the literal translation.

Example 3
Source Text: ???????????????????? ???????????????????????????????
Target Text: If they had been human, they would surely weep.

In this example, the word ‘?????’ means ‘human’. Thus, it is categorised into ‘word to word’ category of the literal translation.

4.2 Examples of Group to Group
Group to Group
Example 4
Source Text: ????????? ???????????????????????? ??????????????????????? ??????
Target Text: Her mother insisted that at home, she must live and behave like a
country girl.

In this example, the words ‘??????’ means ‘must live’. Thus, it is categorised into ‘group to group’ category of the literal translation.

Example 5
Source Text: ??????????????? ?????????????? ???????????????????????????????????
??????????????? ???
Target Text: He loved the cool breeze that swept to him across the farms.

In this example, the words ‘?????’ means ‘cool breeze’. Thus, it is categorised into ‘group to group’ category of the literal translation.

Example 6
Source Text: ??????? ????? ???????? ????????????????????? ??????????????????????? ???????????? ??????
Target Text: Wild roses lined the dirt road leading out of the village on both sides.

In this example, the words ‘?????????????????????’ means ‘wild roses’. Thus, it is categorised into ‘group to group’ category of the literal translation.

4.3 Examples of Clause to Clause
Clause to Clause
Example 7
Source Text: ???????????????? ?????????????????? ?????? ??????????????? ???????? ???????????
Target Text: His poetic words on the country were said to Khin Lay under the gourd vines; and Mother did not like it, not one bit.

In this example, the whole clause “…???????? ?????????? ” means “Mother did not like it..”. Thus, it is categorised into ‘clause to clause’ category of the literal translation.

Example 8
Source Text: ????? ?????????? ???? ????????? ?????? ??????????????????? ??????????? ?????????????
Target Text: Now, since her daughter left, she did not even go near that road.

In this example, the whole clause “?????????????… ” means “Since her daughter left…”. Thus, it is categorised into ‘clause to clause’ category of the literal translation.

Example 9
Source Text: ?????? ????????????? ????????????? ???????? ????????????? ??????????????? ?????????????
Target Text: The evening that Khin Lay was due to arrive, both her mother and U Thar Kyaw waited on the road outside the village.
In this example, the whole clause “????????????????????????????…” means “The evening Khin Lay due to arrive…”. Thus, it is categorised into ‘clause to clause’ category of the literal translation.

4.4 Examples of Sentence to Sentence
Sentence to Sentence
Example 10
Source Text: ?????????? ??????????????????? ??????????????????????
Target Text: The sweet smell of the wildflowers greeted her.

In this example, the whole sentence “?????????? ??????????????????? ?????????????????????? ” means “The sweet smell of the wildflowers greeted her”. Thus, it is categorised into ‘sentence to sentence’ category of the literal translation.

Example 11
Source Text: ???????? ????????????
Target Text: Mother however was smiling.

In this example, the whole sentence “???????? ????????????” means “Mother however was smiling”. Thus, it is categorised into ‘sentence to sentence’ category of the literal translation.

Example 12
Source Text: ????????????? ????
Target Text: I’m back, mother.

In this example, the whole sentence “????????????? ????” means ” I’m back, mother”. Thus, it is categorised into ‘sentence to sentence’ category of the literal translation.

5. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
Considering word, group, clause and sentence levels of literal translation in the short story “???????”, 43 words for word to word, 28 groups for group to group, 10 clauses for clause to clause, 5 sentences for sentence to sentence and altogether 86 for literal translation are found and shown in the table and the pie chart, accompanied by the percentage.

Table: Categories of Literal Translation found in “???????”
Categories
Number Percentage
Word to Word 43 50%
Group to Group 28 32%
Clause to Clause 10 12%
Sentence to Sentence 5 6%
Total 86 100%

6. CONCLUSION
The research for “???????” by Khin Hnin Yu is conducted by using literal translation suggested by Peter Newmark(1988)  in the translated version of “Trodden Flower” by Ma Thanegi without conveying the sense of the source text. Four categories: word to word, group to group, clause to clause and sentence to sentence of literal translation have been found when studying the source text written by Khin Hnin Yu and the target text translated by Ma Thanegi. Out of these four categories, word to word translation has been found as the most frequently used literal translation category.  According to the findings, other three categories are occasionally discovered as the study continues.  Among them, sentence to sentence category becomes the least used one by the translator. The translator uses these categories of literal translation in order to keep the original taste of the source language. Due to the limitation of time, the scope of this study has been restrained that the researcher could only focus on the literal translation.  Thus, other translation methods by Newmark have been suggested to do further studies for the same short story.

REFERENCES
https://sites.google.com/site/thingsmyanmar/hin-hnin-yu-s-short-stories/trodden-flowerhttps://atkbooks.comhttps://www.mmtimes.com/lifestyle/9607-ma-thanegi-speaks-an-interview-with-one=of-myanmar-s-leading-writers.htmlhttps://en.oxforddictionaries.comhttps://www.merriam-webster.comhttp://transbaha.wordpress.comhttps://www.onehourtranslaion.com

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