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Ginger Supplementation Effect on T2DM
Summary:
In this research, we will investigate how ginger effect the fasting blood sugar level in body. Hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) has become a major threat around the globe which is sign of both type 1 & type 2 diabetes in the body and the number diabetic patients has been increasing since the last few years in whole world specially in Pakistan. It is a chronic disease which may lead to other chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, heart stroke etc.
Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is used as a spice around the globe, it has many therapeutic effects also. It is used in treatment of many problems like hypertension, asthma, diarrhea, nausea etc. Here, we will use ginger powder taking as a medicine for diabetes mellitus in white rats having high blood sugar level. We will have control group and experimental group. The control group will receive capsules having 1g of ginger powder in each and the experimental group will not for about 1 month. After 1 month, the sugar level of both groups will be checked and will be compared. And we will see either ginger has effect on fasting blood sugar or not.
Hypothesis:
The ginger supplementation may reduce the blood sugar level or not.
Goals:
• Increase the use of herbal medicine.
• Make medicine affordable to all.
• To improve society’s health.
Beneficiary:
• People do not have to buy insulin or other costly medicines as this will be available on cheaper price and every person can afford.
• People will be safe from effects of pharmaceutical medicines.
• As herbal medicines have negligible side effects, doctors can prescribe them easily to patients.
Introduction:
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder which is indicated in the body by high blood sugar level (hyperglycemia) and dis-functioning of macronutrients. It results due to the deficiency in secretion or functioning of insulin or both (Arzati et al.,2017). It is classified into two categories: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). T1DM accounts 10% of the disease while T2DM accounts 90% and it is due to impaired functioning of biomolecules such as carbohydrates, proteins and fat (Khandouzi et al.,2015).
This disease has threatened the public health seriously. As investigated by International Diabetes Federation (IDF), the number of diabetic patients was 415 million in 2015 in the world and it can increase up to 10% in adults till 2040. The symptoms of type 2 diabetes mellitus are raised blood sugar, decreased insulin sensitivity, obesity, dyslipidemia and hypertension (Zhu et al.,2018). Diabetes mellitus lead to other chronic diseases. If hyperglycemia is uncontrolled in diabetic patients and they have the insulin resistance then it will lead to dyslipidemia which lead to coronary artery diseases, stroke etc. (Khandouzi et al.,2015).
Diabetes is among several disorders which are caused by oxidative stress (Khakhi et al.,2014). Blood glucose level is increased by oxidative stress through the over production of free radicals (reactive oxygen species). This creates an imbalance between the antioxidant defense system of cell and free radicals. This oxidative stress by hyperglycemia affects the metabolism of biomolecules in the body and lead towards atherosclerosis (Khandouzi et al.,2015).
Oral hypoglycemic agents, insulin and diet are used for the treatment of diabetes. There are sever effects of synthetic drugs such as hypoglycemic coma, liver-kidney disorder etc. The use of medicinal plants is recommended by the WHO for the treatment of diabetes mellitus (Arzati et al.,2017).
Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a herb which belongs to family Zingiber aceae. It is widely used as a spice due to its pungent taste. It also has medicinal effects and has been used in treatment of many problems such as stomachache, arthritis, fatty liver disease, nausea caused by pregnancy, stroke, constipation and chemotherapy. Ginger is also effective for T2DM. this positive effect may be dur to its bioactive components gingerols, shogaols, zingerone, and paradols (Zhu et al.,2018). Ginger has anti-hypertensive effect due to its components 6-shogaol and 9-gingerol (Azimi et al.,2016). We can consume ginger as fresh or in dried form. It is also used in preparation of teas, soft drinks and breads etc.
The bioactive components of ginger produce a hot sensation in mouth. Ginger has anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-arthritic, anti-oxidant and anti-diabetic activities (Arzati et al.,2017). Ginger also has vitamin B ; C and some minerals like calcium, magnesium, phosphorus etc. In the digestive system, ginger’s phenolic compounds such as gingerol and shogaol inhibit ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase enzymes, which are associated with carbohydrate metabolism and hyperglycemia and act as anti-diabetic. In pancreatic ? cells, ginger stimulates insulin secretion, and decreases the intracellular reactive oxygen species and act as anti-oxidant. In liver, ginger suppresses expression of inflammatory proteins such as interleukin and act as anti-inflammatory (Shidfar et al.,2015).

Literature Review:

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