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GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
CHANDKHEDA, AHMEDABAD

GOVERNMENT ENGINEERING COLLEGE, GANDHINAGAR
A project report on
TWO WAY SECURED WIRELESS COMMUNICATION USING ZIGBEE
Under subject of PROJECT – 2170001
B.E., SEMESTER – 7 (EC BRANCH)
Submitted by:
Sr.no. Name of student Enrolment No.

1 PATEL RAVI 150130111074
2 SHAH YASH 150130111096
3 VAGHASIA ISHAN 150130111117
Faculty Guide: Prof. Abhinav J. Dave
Head of the department: Dr Kishor Maradiya
Academic year: 2018 – 2019

Government engineering college Gandhinagar
Certificate

This is certifying to PATEL RAVI having Enrolment no. 150130111074 student of E.C. department successfully submitted detailed project report of “TWO WAY SECURED WIRELESS COMMUNICATION” during the academic year 2018-19.

This project work has been carried out by them in group (03 person) under guidance of Prof. Abhinav J Dave.

Date of Submission:
____________________________
Faculty guide H.O.D.
(Prof. Abhinav J Dave) (Prof. K.G. MARADIYA)

Government engineering college Gandhinagar
Certificate

This is certifying to SHAH YASH having Enrolment no. 150130111096 student of E.C. department successfully submitted detailed project report of “TWO WAY SECURED WIRELESS COMMUNICATION” during the academic year 2018-19.

This project work has been carried out by them in group (03 person) under guidance of Prof. Abhinav J Dave.

Date of Submission:
____________________________
Faculty guide H.O.D.
(Prof. Abhinav J Dave) (Prof. K.G. MARADIYA)

Government engineering college Gandhinagar
Certificate

This is certifying to VAGHASIA ISHAN having Enrolment no. 150130111117 student of E.C. department successfully submitted detailed project report of “TWO WAY SECURED WIRELESS COMMUNICATION” during the academic year 2018-19.

This project work has been carried out by them in group (03 person) under guidance of Prof. Abhinav J Dave.

Date of Submission:
____________________________
Faculty guide H.O.D.
(Prof. Abhinav J Dave) (Prof. K.G. MARADIYA)
INTRODUCTION
Our team name is “The Concept Crew”. We are 3 members in team.1.Patel Ravi (Enrolment no.150130111074)
2.Shah Yash (Enrolment no.150130111096)
3.Vaghasia Ishan (Enrolment no.150130111117)
Our team’s guide for project – 1 subject is Mr. Abhinav J Dave. Mr. Dave is an assistant professor in electronics and communication engineering. He has a vast experience of teaching. His main area of interest is communication systems.
Design thinking gives students a taste of the rich internal-remunerations associated with knowledge-creation and in curiosity and problem-driven contexts. Design need to satisfy technical functions, ergonomics functions, aesthetic functions, cost function and environment functions. Design solution of a problem starts with planned constructions for achieving goal/s. Designing means evolving goal-oriented processes. At the beginning of the design process only goals are known while at the end, both the goals and plans are known and that to with more clarity. Goal and plans evolve together and they influencing each other. In designing process some goals are more important than others and similarly some plans are better than others. Designing does not guarantee that the design will work.

Our project is named as “Two way secured wireless communication using ZigBee”. Our main of this is to generate signal in no signal land. Which means it can be used anywhere any time without any kind of electricity connection. It can work on 12v battery and consumes very less power compared to Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and many other communication devices.
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
In the past we had pagers which are only used to receive messages but cannot acknowledge or reply to the received message to sender. Pagers are a wireless telecommunication device that receives and displays alphanumeric or voice messages. They were developed in the 1950s and 1960s and became widely used by 1980s. In the 21st century, the widespread availability of cell phones and smartphones has greatly diminished the pager industry.

Currently we have two main devices to communicate with others are cell phones and landline phones. Land line phones are also known as telephones or simply phones. A telephone is a telecommunication device that permits two or more users to conduct a conversation when they are too far apart to be heard directly. A telephone converts sound, typically and most efficiently the human voice, into electronic signals that are transmitted via cables and other communication channels to another telephone which reproduces the sound to the receiving user. The first telephones were directly connected to each other from one customer’s office or residence to another customer’s location. Being impractical beyond just a few customers, these systems were quickly replaced by manually operated centrally located switchboards. This gave rise to landline telephone service in which each telephone is connected by a pair of dedicated wires to a local central office switching system, which developed into fully automated systems starting in early 1900s. Telephones were widely used over the span of up to 50 years and still they are in use but in small numbers compared to mobile phones which are demonstrated in 1970s. Mobile phones came over the telephones with the main objective of wireless mobility.

A mobile phone known as cell phone is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area. The radio frequency link establishes a connection to switching systems of a mobile phone operator, which provides access to the public switched telephone network (PSTN). Modern mobile telephones services use a cellular network architecture and therefore mobile telephones are called cellular telephones or cell phones.

In addition to telephony, 2000s era mobile phones support a variety of other services such as text messaging, MMS, email, Internet access, short range wireless communications, business applications, video games and digital photography. Mobile phones offering only those capabilities are known as feature phones, mobile phones which offer greatly advanced computing capabilities are referred to as smartphones.

A smartphone is a class of mobile phone and mobile computing device. They are distinguished from feature phones by their stronger hardware capabilities and extensive mobile operating systems, which facilitate wider software, internet and multimedia functionality, alongside core phone functions such as voice calls and text messaging. Smartphones typically include various sensors that can be leveraged by their software, such as magnetometer, proximity sensors and support wireless communications protocols such as Bluetooth, Wi-Fi and satellite navigation.

As one can see all the above devices either need a wired connection or sim cards for network for communicating with other devices. In India there is still many areas which can not be connected by even roads, so there is no chance for wired connection or network reception.

This picture shows us the network availability on India’s biggest telecommunication network provider Vodafone. As you can see some areas are not even having a 2G network near to Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Assam and many other. Some villages in Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura, Uttarakhand, Jammu and Kashmir are not even connected through roads half of the year, due to natural disasters like flood, snow fall, heavy raining and many other.

By taking all these aspects under consideration we decided to make a new device to communicate without any need of network providers or wired connections or even an electricity connection using different electronic components.

DESIGN ENGINEERING CANVAS
Project is a subject based on Design Thinking that will change the mind-set of young engineers to create innovation, entrepreneurship, skill development culture in India. Design Thinking is Human Centred process with specific steps like Observation, Empathy, Ideation, Product Development, Prototype and Test with lots of iterations. All Canvases, framework, tools & techniques are useful to enhance creativity and innovation in the projects. Design Engineering must be considered as philosophy rather a subject.

During semester 7 the student teams are required to carry out following design engineering canvas activities related to student’s project to identify and filter out good ideas and project definition to work upon:
1. AEIOU Summary ; Mind mapping
2. Empathy Canvas
3. Ideation Canvas
4. Product Development Canvas

1.AEIOU SUMMARY

AEIOU summary canvas contains almost every aspects of the project like with whom you have discussed the project, where it can be used, which activities can be done with this particular device, objects used for making this device and consumers.

ACTIVITIES
Activities include the functions which can be done by using this device. Our project includes activities like wireless messaging, secured communication, data transfer and short distance communication.

ENVIRONMENT
Environment can be defined as the situation or the place where it can be helpful. This equipment can be used in colleges, schools, industries, banks, warzones, hospitals and rural areas.

INTERACTIONS
Interactions field covers peoples with whom you have discussed the project details. We have a small conversation with many peoples like industrialists, network operators, farmers, military officials and security agencies.

OBJECTS
Objects include the components or instruments used for making this device work properly. We will be using basic electronic components like power supply, ZigBee, microcontrollers, crystal, keypad and display. Every object has their unique functionality in their own way.

USERS
Users include the mass which is going to use our product in near future. We can count on villagers, farmers, military, offices and big factories as our main consumers.

2.EMPATHY MAPPING

Empathy mapping is a collaborative tool teams can use to gain a deeper insight in to their customers. Much like user persona, and empathy map can represent a group of users, such as a customer segment. Visualizing user attitudes and behaviours in an empathy map helps teams align on a deep understanding of end users. The mapping process also reveals any hole in existing user data.

USERS
This section in the empathy mapping canvas includes end users which are going to get benefit of this product.

STAKE HOLDERS
Stake holder is a person, a group or organization who are having an interest or concern in this particular project. Stake holders can affect or be affected by the organization’s actions, objectives and policies. Some examples of stockholders are creditors, directors, employees, government, owners, suppliers, unions and the community for which the business draws its resources.

ACTIVITIES
Activities includes different functions which can be done by using this product. Main activity for this project is secured communication.

STORY BOARDING
Story boarding is based on real life experiences and examples that people faces and how the use of our product could improve their life and make them happy.

3.IDEATION CANVAS

Ideation canvas covers the situations, context and location where this particular idea can be used. This product can generate signal in no signal land. Addition to this further section give us the solutions provided by using this product.

PEOPLE
This section includes the personals who will be beneficiated using this device. We can include travellers, police officers, army battalions, shopping malls and offices for this section.

ACTIVITIES
Activities section include the works done through this device which are secured communication, wireless messaging, data transfer and main is the generating signal in no signal land.

SITUATION/CONTEXT/LOCATION
In this section we have to include the situations and locations where it will be beneficial for consumers. As this device does not need any electricity connection or high-power batteries it can be used in any emergency situations like floods, earthquakes and many other. Other locations where it can be used includes villages, basecamps, no signal lands, shopping malls and townships.

PROPS/POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS
This part of the canvas includes the devices which can be replaced by this device. We can use this product in areas where there are no network operators available or we can say where mobile phones do not get networks. We can even use it where there are no electricity connections or where computers can not work. There is no wonder if Zigbee can replace the Bluetooth in near future due to its greater characteristics.

4.PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT CANVAS

Product development basic development canvas includes details of product like experiences, functions, features, components etc.

PRODUCT EXPERIENCE
This section gives us the experiences of the consumer by using this device.

PRODUCT FUNCTIONS
Functions are a product answer to user problems/needs. They do something user wants. A function can have one or more features providing it. Sometimes a very popular component becomes function itself.

PRODUCT FEATURES
Product features are specific. One or more features will power a function. Each feature will have many components/sub components powering it. Sometimes a component becomes a feature itself.

PURPOSE
This section includes the main reasons due to which you are making this device. This section provides answers to many questions like what is the purpose of this concept, does it solve a problem or it enhances a certain experience, is it serving a need or it is trying to create a new need.

Secured messaging
To overcome network availability
Short distance communication
Generate signal in no signal land
COMPONENTS AND MATERIALS
1. AT89S52 Microcontroller
2. Zigbee RF module
3. LCD Display 20*4
4. 4*4 matrix keyboard
5. Capacitors
6. Resistors
7. Diodes
8. Crystal
1.AT89S52 Microcontroller
The AT89S52 is a low power, high performance CMOS 8-bit microcontroller with 8Kbytes of in system programmable flash memory. The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high-density non-volatile memory technology and is compatible with industry standard 80C51 instruction set and pinout. The on-chip flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in system or by a conventional non-volatile memory programmer. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with in system programmable flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89S52 is a powerful microcontroller which provides a highly flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control applications. The next diagram will show us the pinout of 40 pin AT89S52 microcontroller.

PINOUT diagram of AT89S52

The AT89S52 provides the following standard features: 8KB of flash, 256 bytes of RAM, 32 I/O lines, Watchdog timer, two data pointers, three 16-bit timer/counters, a six vector two level interrupt architecture, a full duplex serial port, on chip oscillator and clock circuitry. In addition, it is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and supports two software selectable power saving modes. The idle mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM, Timer/counters, serial ports and interrupt systems to continue functioning. The power down mode saves the RAM contents but freezes the oscillator, disabling all other chip functions until the next interrupt or hardware reset.

2.ZIGBEE RF MODULE

The ZigBee and ZigBee pro RF modules are engineered to meet IEEE 802.15.4 standards and support the unique need of low cost, low power wireless sensor networks. The module requires minimal power and provide reliable delivery of data between devices. The modules operate within the ISM 2.4Ghz frequency band and are pin for pin compatible with each other.
KEY FEATURES
1.Long distance data integrity
Indoor: Up to 90m
Outdoor: Up to 1 mile (1600 m)
2.Low power
Tx peak current: 45mA (at 3.3V)
Rx current: 50mA (at 3.3V)
Power down current: ;10µA
3.Advance networking and security
Retries and acknowledgments
DSSS (direct sequence spread spectrum)
Each direct sequence channels have over 65000 unique network address available.

Source/destination addressing
Unicast and broadcast communications
Point to point, point to multipoint and peer to peer topologies supported
4.Easy to use
No configuration necessary for out of box RF communications
Free X-CTU software (Testing and configuration software)
AT-API command modes for configuring module parameters
Extensive command set
Small form factor
5.Worldwide acceptance
FCC approval (USA) refer to appendix A (P64) for FCC requirements. Systems that contain ZigBee RF modules inherit Digi Certifications.

ISM (industrial, scientific ; medical) 2.4Ghz band
Manufactured under ISO 9001:2000 registered standards
ZigBee modules are optimized for use worldwide
PINOUT OF ZIGBEE MODULE

PIN NO. NAME DESCRIPTION
1 Vcc Power supply
2 DOUT UART data out
3 DIN UART data in
4 DOUT Digital data output 8
5 RESET Module reset
6 PWM0 PWM output 0
7 PWM1 PWM output 1
8 RESV. Do not connect
9 SLEEP Pin sleep control line
10 GND Ground
11 AD4 Analog input 4
12 CTS Clear to send flow control
13 SLEEP Module status indicator
14 VREF Voltage reference for A/D inputs
15 AD5 Analog input 5
16 AD6 Request to send flow control
17 AD3 Analog input 3
18 AD2 Analog input 2
19 AD1 Analog input 1
20 AD0 Analog input 0
3.LCD DISPLAY 20*4

Character LCD 20*4
5*8 dots include cursor
Built in controller (RW1063)
+5v power supply (also available for +3v)
Negative voltage optional for +3v power supply
1/16 duty cycle
LED can be driven by PIN1, PIN2, PIN15, PIN16 or A and K

4.4*4 matrix keypad

Typically, one port pin is required to read a digital input into the controller. When there are a lot of digital inputs that have to be read, it is not feasible to allocate one pin for each of them. This is when a matrix keypad arrangement is used to reduce the pin count. Therefore, the number of pins that are required to interface a given number of inputs decreases with increase in the order of the matrix.

Initially all switches are assumed to be released. So, there is no connection between the rows and columns. When anyone of the switches are pressed, the corresponding row and column are connected (short circuited). This will drive that column pin (initially high) low. Using this logic, the button press can be detected. The colours red and black is for logic high and low respectively.

5.Capacitors

A capacitor is a passive two terminal electrical component that stores potential energy in an electrical field. The effect of capacitor is known as capacitance.

6.Resistors

A resistor is a passive electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element. In electronic circuits, resistors are used to reduce current flow, adjust signal level, to divide voltages, bias active elements and terminate transmission lines, among other uses. High power resistors that can dissipate many watts of electrical power as heat, may be used as part of motor controls, in power distribution systems, or as test loads for generators.

7.Diodes

A diode is a two terminal electronics component that conducts current primarily in one direction, is has low resistance in one direction and high resistance in the other.
8.Crystal in microcontroller

An electronic circuit that is used to generate signal of precise frequency by utilizing the vibrating crystal’s mechanical response made of piezoelectric material. There are different types of piezoelectric resonators, but typically, quartz crystal is used in these types of oscillators. Hence, these oscillator electronic circuits are name as crystal oscillator.

BLOCK DIAGRAM
18478501905001485900180975-95259525POWER SUPPLY
00POWER SUPPLY

43624509525ZIGBEE RF MODULE
0ZIGBEE RF MODULE

33331158509000
449580018675364*4 MATRIX KEYBOARD
04*4 MATRIX KEYBOARD
3295650208661044481751048385LCD DISPLAY 20*4
0LCD DISPLAY 20*4
3286125126746016668755054600014954253054350
CONCLUSION
Data security is primary concern for every communication system. There are many ways to provide security to data that is being communicated. Our project provides high security to messages that are being transmitted. In the rural areas it is very much useful for communication in emergency situations like flood and earthquakes, when there is no chance for electricity as well as mobile communication.

REFERENCES
International journal of scientific and engineering research, volume 5, issue 3, march 2014
American society for engineering education (Paper ID #17728)
https://www.slideshare.net/http://nevonprojects.com/https://www.alldatasheet.com/

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