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Having examined the meanings of the word ????? in dictionaries we can distinguish some categories (semantic fieslds) according to the senses the word possesses:
­ quality or condition of being alive, distinguished from death:”???? ? ???? ?????????? ????? ????????, ?? ????????, ?? ????? ???????? ???????? ? ???? ?? ????…” (????? ??????); “? ??? ?????? ? ??????? ???????, ????? ? ????? ????? ???????” (?. ??????????);
­ living person or being: ? ??????? ????? – ????, ?????, ??? ???????, ??????, ??? ???? ??????????? ????????, ?????? ????? …(?. ??????????); ???? ? ???? ? ????????? ??????? ?’???, ?? ???????? ? ????????? ????: ?????? ???? ????? ??? ????? ????????? (?.????????????);
­ period somebody is alive:” ??? ? ??????? ?????? ????? ??? ?????.” (?.????????????); ? ?? ??? ???? ????? ?? ??? ???? ?? ???? ????????, ?????, ???????? ???????? (???? ????????)
­ manner of living: : ?? ???????? ????????? ??? ??????????? ????? ??? ????? ? ?? ????…(?.??????); ?? ?????? ???? ????? ? ????? ???????!(?.?????)
­ vitality, animation, strength: ????? ???????????? ????? ???, ??????? ? ?????, ???????? ? ??? ??????? …(?. ????????); ???? ???????? ? ????? ????? ?????? ?????, ????, ???????.(?. ?????);
­ actual environment, reality: ??? ??? ???????? ? ????????? ?????, ?? ?????? ?? ???????? ?????.(?. ???????); ?????????? ?????.. ????? ???’?????? ???? ??????????? ? ?????????, ? ?????? (????? ? ?????)
­ activity or development of something: ????? ????? ?????, ????????? ?????? ?????.(???? ????????); ??? ? ???? ???? ???? ???? ? ????????, ? ?????? ?? ??????? ???? ?????? ????????? ????? ????? (?.????????)
­ something very precious (metaphorically): ????? ???, ???????, ???? ??? ???? ????? ??? ????? (?. ???????)
Analyzing syntagmatic relations and contextual usage in 250 sentences taken from fiction and periodicals 28 we singled out some conceptual metaphors that shape the figurative component of the concept “life” in Ukrainian. They are:
• life – journey (???????, ????? ?????; ?????? ?????);
• life – space (???, ????, ????? ?????; ????????? ??????; ?????? ? ?????);
• life – liquid (?????, ????, ????, ??? ?????; ???????? ? ?????;??????????? ?????);
• life – light (?????, ?????? ?????; ???????????? ?????; ???????);
• life – plant (?????, ??????, ??????? ?????; ????? ?????????, ?????????);
• life – passerby (????? ???, ??????, ??????, ???????????);
• life – article (?????????, ??????? ?????; ????? ????????);
• life – melody (???? ?????; ????? ??????);
• life – money (????????? ??????; ????????? ?????; ????????? ?????);
• life – something precious (????????, ????????, ??????, ??????? ?????);
• life – knowledge, experience (??????? ?????; ??????? ?????);
• life – container (??????????? ????? ???????);

2.1.2. Life
According to the definitions given in several dictionaries of English language the core of the concept “life” consists of such semantic categories:
­ quality or condition of being alive, distinguished from death: “…death and oppression of one class are contrasted with the life and liberation of another”.(Michael Scriven); “In short, an essential step in the evolution of all the life forms that now exist on Earth, was the co-operation of two quite different kinds of molecule…” (Colin Tudge);
­ living person or being: “…if indeed some loss of life has occurred, I can only express my very profound regret” (Guardian); “Had that cost him his life?” (P.C. Doherty); “You spared my life.” (Brian Aldiss);
­ period somebody is alive: “I’ve never done anything so decisive in my life.” (Nina Bawden); “Who says I am writing the story of my life?” (Julian Critchley);
­ time when something exists, works: “Battery life on the Lynx is about four hours with six AA batteries…” (Guardian); “Lipstick stubs were mixed with oil or cream to extend their life or to make creme rouge.” (Museum Society meeting);
­ human existence, relationships, or activity in general: “Into your life, into my life, he is able to bring peace.” (Albert Gunter); “He talks about things that are intuitively relevant to everyday life.” (Guardian); “We can never achieve a perfect life by our own efforts…” (James Houston);
­ manner of living: “Life, from now on, was going to be quite different from anything she had ever known.” (Ruth Appleby); “I wrote to the effect that I did indeed look forward to life with him, and that my guidelines for living were the same as his.” (Irene Young);
­ vitality, animation, strength: “People feel that they do not have much of a life, because in their terms, their lives seem unfulfilling and pointless.” (Robert Senior); “They carefully scanned the area, unmoving, and waiting for any sign of life.” (John Bedford);
­ actual environment, reality: “Many of her thoughts pass into oblivion, while the occasional thought comes true to life.” (Kevin Logan); “If she had happened to be a woman out of touch with real life, that would have bored him.” (Phillip Callow);
­ account of person’s life: “All the Pain that Money Can Buy: the Life of Christina Onassis by William Wright” (Daily Telegraph);
­ group of living organisms: “…but it is hardly a sufficient explanation for how the enormous diversity of life in space and time has come about.(Today); “The original flow of the river greatly affected the Mediterranean, too, and the marine life that was adapted to it.” (Colin Tudge);
­ punishment: “I was not condemned to the Gurignys’ life sentence.” (Taylor, Elisabeth Russell); “I think she should get life” (Guardian);
­ activity or development of something: “BitC is a charity, set up in 1981, to breathe life back into Britain’s dying towns and cities.” (Penny Junor); “The life of a river has nothing to show more resonant of changeless change than the life cycle of the mayfly…” (J. Purseglove)
Analyzing syntagmatic relations and contextual usage in 500 sentences taken from fiction and periodicals 27 we pointed out some conceptual metaphors that form the English perception of the concept “life”. They are:
• life – journey (life path, way; beginning, end of life; through life; guide to life);
• life – space (area of life; avenues of life; let into life);
• life – liquid (source, current of life);
• life – passerby (pace of life; life goes on, passes by, returns);
• life – article (measure life; give, take, sell life);
• life – money (spend, waste, spare life; cost, owe, bet, risk life; lease of life);
• life – something precious (save, lose, share life; devote, dedicate life; gift of life);
• life – container (full, empty life; not much left; life contains);
• life – story (role in life; episode, stage of life);
• life – air (blow, breathe in life);

2.1.3. Comparison of the word-concept ????? and the word-concept life
Thus, both Ukrainian and English concepts of time include common semantic fields, but the core of the English life is broader.Having analyzed dictionary definitions of concept we can conclude that the perception of life by Ukrainians and English is mainly similar. However, some differences were identified: Ukrainians usually do not refer time as to period of nonliving things existence, it is also not associated with a particular group of living organisms (e. g. marine life) and is not used to define imprisonment. As a result we can conclude that English life has a higher semantic potential than Ukrainian ?????.
Hovewer, the analysis of conceptual metaphors implies that Ukrainians apprehend this concept with some entities not typical of English perception of the same concept, such as: association with plant and melody and referring to life as to experience. Meanwhile life can be perceived as story by English. This distinction is caused by the peculiarities of the nations’ cultures and language world pictures.
While conducting our research we found out that in both languages the notion ?????/life can be the subject as well as the object of the action.
From the variety of 150 Ukrainian sentences, where the word ????? is used, in 29 sentences ????? is the subject and in 35 ????? is the object (see appendix 1).
The analysis of English sentences, where the word life is used, was carried out with the help of word lists by frequency in the British National Corpus (Brigham Young University). From the first 200 results of the queries we chose those which were semantically adequate. Therefore we got such results:
1) life-subject. In this case life can be combined with such verbs: go(296); make(231); seem (218); become(214); take (193); begin(143); come(177); change(139); get (120); depend (84); mean (82); bring (74); continue (64); turn (55); remain (52); appear (49); offer (42); develop (42); move (40); exist (40); revolve (38); allow (31); reveal (28); improve (25);
2) life-object. English lets us do such things with life: make (736); live (458); save (406); take (297); give (282); start (259); enjoy (210); bring (205); lead (191); spend (178); see (170); get (165); begin (162); know (157); change (143); want (130); find (110); serve (101); lose (93); risk (83); put (83); jail (82); feel (77); share (75); prolong (73); breathe (73); mean (71); experience (69); affect (66); ruin (66); endanger (65); look (63); tell (61); end (59); devote (55); describe (53); extend(53); write (52); adapt (50); love (50); like (44); use (44); face (43); enter (42); improve (41); organize (40); continue (39); dominate (38); leave (38); owe (38); imagine (38); draw(36); keep (36); need (36); sustain (36); return (36); create (35); base (34); show (34); threaten (33); cost (32); build (32); claim (31); reflect (31); dedicate (30); seek (30); understand (28); influence (28); represent (28); destroy (27); shorten (26); waste (25); disrupt (25); allow (25); remain (25); receive (25).
Judging from facts stated above some similarities in the reflection of the concept of life in Ukrainian and English can be noticed. Firstly, in both languages life is more frequently used as the object of the action. Secondly, there are some common verbs used with the words ????? and life (e.g. ????? ??? – life goes; ????? ???? – life takes; ????? ??????????? – life begins; ?????? ????? – to love life; ???????? ????? – to give life; ?????????? ?????? – to risk life etc.). However, there are some differences in usage (e.g. in English life does not “quieten”, as it is not associated with melody or sound: ????? ?????? – life calms/dies down). This reflects the differences in the time perception of both nations.
In the same variety of Ukrainian sentences we formed a set of 35 sentences, where features of ????? are described (see appendix 2). On the basis of distinguished categories life in Ukrainian can be:
1. pleasant, wonderful (5 instances)
2. dull, primitive (4 instances)
3. wholesome (4 instances)
4. continuous/interrupted (7 instances)
5. referred to a sphere of life (3 instances)
6. active, powerful (3 instances)
7. evaluated (6 instances)
8. compared to something (7 instances)
To examine attributes of time in English we used word lists by frequency in the British National Corpus (Brigham Young University). From the first 100 results of the query we took 50 most semantically adequate. Thus, we classified those adjectives describing time into semantic groups. In English attributes of time can be:
1. evaluated in terms of quality (16 instances);
2. referred to a sphere of life (15 instances);
3. continuous (12 instances);
4. referred to human activity (7 instances).
Thus, some attributes of life in Ukrainian and in English are common, and some are different. Such results prove once again that both nations perceive life similarly to some extent. Still, peculiarities of the cultures cause dissimilarity in their world pictures.

2.2. Etymology of concepts “????? / life”
In Ukrainian language the word ????? derives from the verb ‘????’ which is traced back to the Proto-Slavic *žiti, from which also originated Old Slavic ????, ???? (Greek ???, ??????). The root “??” (‘jii’) confirms etymology of the word “?????”: “?????” – “????” – “?????” – “????????” – “?????” – “????” – ‘?????’ (life). Sanskrit: ?? (‘jii’) = “to live”, “????”. “??” — from Sanskrit word ????? ‘???????’/’?????’ = “????”; ??? (‘?????’) = “???? ????” “living soul”, “????” (“to breathe”). ??????? (‘jivyate’) = “remain alive, to revive”, “???? ?????, ??????, ?????????? ??????…” {‘?????’ = “????”}.
In English the word life derives from Old English life (dative lif) “animated corporeal existence; lifetime, period between birth and death; the history of an individual from birth to death, written account of a person’s life; way of life (good or bad); condition of being a living thing, opposite of death; spiritual existence imparted by God, through Christ, to the believer,” from Proto-Germanic *libam (source also of Old Norse lif “life, body,” Old Frisian, Old Saxon lif “life, person, body,” Dutch lijf “body,” Old High German lib “life,” German Leib “body”), properly “continuance, perseverance,” from PIE root *leip- “to stick, adhere.”
The noun associated with live (v.) “to live,” which is literally “to continue, remain.” Extended 1703 to inanimate objects, “term of duration or existence.” Sense of “vitality, energy in action, expression, etc.” is from 1580s. Meaning “conspicuously active part of human existence, pleasures or pursuits of the world or society” is by 1770s. Meaning “cause or source of living” led to the sense “vivifying or animating principle,” and thus “one who keeps things lively” in life of the party (1787). Meaning “imprisonment for life, a life sentence” is from 1903. Paired alliteratively with limb from 1640s. Not on your life “by no means” is attested from 1896. 21
Having compared etymology of both concepts, we can conclude that in Ukrainian language concept ????? was originally more associated with living being and condition of being alive, whereas in English it originates from the idea of life in its process. Still both concepts had similar features from their origin and extended their semantic fields over time. It can also be observed that in both languages life can be referred to one of the early concepts.

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