Impact of Western Culture on Pakistan 1
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
Culture may be defined as an integral whole which affects human ideals, actions, and modes of living. As per E.B. Taylor, “Culture was an intricate complete which incorporates information, convictions, craftsmanship, ethics, traditions yet every other ability and propensities learned by man as an individual from a general public.” Culture was the trait of a specific gathering of individuals, characterized by everything from dialect, religion, food, social propensities, music, and expressions. Culture may be defined as a behavior peculiar to human beings, together with material items utilized. Culture comprises of dialect, thoughts, convictions, traditions, codes, foundations, devices, systems, the action of expressions, purposes and so on. As per Allama Iqbal, “Culture envelops all the psychological, physical and profound exercises of a country; it comprised the fundamental convictions and confidence, traits and writing, layout and engineering, music and technique of dress, path, and traditions pervasive in a given society”. Culture comprised of the virtues and codes that retain in any particular nation, which became the traditional value of that nation.
Each nation has its own culture. The culture of Pakistan was exceptionally various, with every ethnic gathering getting its personality from its qualities, social esteems, and standards which in the end made it distinct from other culture’s. Pakistan was an ideological Islamic state. Its very presence was because of Islam, so the Pakistani culture was depended on Islamic lifestyle. Pakistani culture was featured by its glory, effortlessness, firm conviction and honorable deeds and thoughts. Pakistani culture was really a piece of the contemporary Islamic human advancement which drew its esteem and conventions from Islam and rich Islamic history. The greater part of populace contained Muslims and took after lessons of Islam, I-e., faith in one god “Allah”, Prophet Hood of Hazrat Muhammad P.B.U.H, fraternity, equity and social equity and so forth. Islam was a religion of peace and tolerance. The national calendar was set apart by religious days which were seen with great devotion.
Pakistan was an extensive nation which contained four regions; the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and Federally Administered Northern Areas (FANA). These segment parts had their own particular local dialects. Accordingly Punjabi, Pashtu, Sindhi, Balochi, Barohi, and Kashmiri were local dialects. Nonetheless, Urdu was the national language which was talked and comprehends in all parts of the nation.
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A common language created natural understanding to such an extent that speaker and listener came together at one cultural level. Among the other religion dialects and languages, Urdu was a dialect which was talked and comprehends all through the nation.
However, English was likewise used to the same degree as national dialect because of the Academic requirement and westernization. Every nation had its own particular way of life and culture, and more often family system totally depended upon it. Pakistan was a man-centric culture supported by solid family ties where the joint family framework still wins. It was typically steady with guardians, children, and grandparents living respectively as a solitary family. Also, earning head of the family played a vital role in maintaining the economy and nourishment of the family. Additionally, the dress formed an important part of the culture. The national dress of Pakistan was shalwar kameez for both men and ladies, which comprised of a long, baggy tunic with pants sufficiently loose not to see the state of their legs. However, the highlights and qualities of these shalwar kameez fluctuated as per the district. Thus local culture had a prevalent impact on the dress decision of the population. Moreover, in light of the fact that no less than 95 percent of the Pakistani population was Muslim, there were two food customs that were followed almost universally. One was that Muslims don’t ate pork (consequently meat, chicken, sheep, and fish were the essential nourishment), and the other was that during the month of Ramadan, fasting was a daily activity. Flavors and curry were a basic piece of any Pakistani recipe while Green tea was the common drink served at all meals. Other aspects of the rich Pakistani culture included the religious festivals celebration including Eid ul-Fitr, Eid ul-Adha, Ramadan, Chand Raat, Jashn-e-Baharan and so on.
Additionally, the variety of Pakistani music ranged from different commonplace people music and customary styles, for example, Qawwali and Ghazal Gayaki to present day frames combining conventional and Western music, for example, the synchronization of Qawwali and Western music by the widely acclaimed Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan. Also, the national game of Pakistan was hockey which was customarily had been played only in the western region of Baluchistan, yet the cricket was the most mainstream brandish in Pakistan. There were numerous diversions played in Pakistan which reflected social personality. Westernization can be characterized as a procedure whereby social orders go under or receive the Western culture in such issues as an industry, innovation, law, legislative issues, financial matters, a way of life, consume fewer calories, dialect, letter set, religion or qualities. Westernization had been an unavoidable and quickened impact
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crosswise over Pakistan over the moat recent couple of hundreds of years. It was generally a two-sided process, in which western impacts and interests themselves were joined by a desire of at any rate parts of the influenced society to change towards a more westernized society, in the expectation of achieving western life or a few parts of it.
Expanded globalization had expanded the impact of Western culture in Pakistan, particularly among the rich, which had simple access to Western items, TV, media, and sustenance. Numerous Western natural ways of life had set up themselves in Pakistan, and were found in the real urban areas. In urban communities, the western dress was additionally well known among the young and the business division. Families don’t have a similar family time together and were particularly delicate about their protection. Fixation on English was so much that numerous Pakistanis, who talked and composed English well, can’t comprehend Urdu. This dissertation aimed to explore this assimilation of western culture into our Pakistani culture, from the lens of Pakistani youth.
1.2 Aim of Research
The aim of the research was to understand the impact of western culture on Pakistan and also to identify the factors which played an important role in the influence of western culture into Pakistani culture by conducting a research on the targeted population through survey Questionnaire.
1.3 Research Objective
The objectives of the research were as follow;
1.3.1. To explore how the culture of Pakistan was perceived by the youth.
1.3.2. To study the impact of western culture in Pakistan over time.
1.3.3. To identify the possible positive and negative outcome of the assimilation of western culture within Pakistan culture.
1.3.4. To examine the age group more likely to be influenced by the western culture in Pakistan.
1.4 Research Question
In order to address the research aim and objectives described above, the research aimed to answer the following Questions:
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1.4.1. How was Pakistani Youth influenced by western culture?
1.4.2. What was the medium which accompanied the spread of western culture?
1.4.3. What were the main factors behind cultural penetration of west which were influencing Pakistan’s society?
1.4.4. What were the positive and negative outcomes of the spread of western culture in Pakistan?
1.5 Research Problems
This study had certain deficiencies like accuracy problem. The study was only targeted to the age limit of 16 to 50 years old and so just caters to information of this segment. The sample target was also limited to selected cities and hence it was hard to generalize the survey outcome. Moreover, our study was only based on quantitative data and not qualitative data so responses were limited to close questionnaire. Also, this study was limited to one time of data collection. Therefore, there was a need to conduct research on the topic at hand at larger scale including data from every sector of this field.
1.6 Rationale of the study
The study offered attention to the general population of our general public about monitoring Pakistani culture; about how it played a vital part of making them joined together and bound together. It helped individuals to comprehend the urgency to safeguard Pakistani culture by giving a documented form of material that highlights the good and bad effects of adopting western culture. Moreover, it instructed the juvenile individuals, to understand the significance of Pakistani culture. Essentially, culture makes utilization of ancient rarities and ceremonies to pass on a notion of identity, which was seen to be missing in our Pakistani society.
1.7 Focus of the Research
The significance of study was mainly focus on university student’s to better examine the impact of western culture among them. Since culture was a diverse topic so it was hard to study all component of culture, the study was only focused on information on the specific component of culture which included language, dress, music, and family system.
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1.8.1. Influence: refer to the capacity to have an effect on the character, development, or behavior of someone or something, or the effect itself.
1.8.2. Assimilation: is the process of taking in and fully understanding information or ideas
1.8.3. Dialect: is a particular form of a language which is peculiar to a specific region or social group.
1.8.4. Attitude: A predisposition or a tendency to respond positively or negatively towards a certain idea, object, person, or situation.
1.8.5. Objective: refer to a specific result that a person or system aims to achieve within a time frame and with available resources.
1.8.6. The juvenile is a child or young person who is not yet old enough to be regarded as an adult.
1.8.7. Comprehend: refer to understanding something completely.
1.8.8. Segment: is the process of dividing a market of potential customers into groups, or segments, based on different characteristics.
1.9 Outline of Research
The Thesis was divided into five chapters. Chapter 1 had the introduction to the topic based on the background, aims and objectives along with problem statement. Chapter 2 provided a compilation of literature reviews while chapter 3 included research methodology. Chapter 4 had all the data tabulations of the survey questionnaire in the form of pie charts and bar graph, and chapter 5 dealt with all the conclusions and recommendations that can be provided for the topic.
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Literature Review on Impact of Western Culture on Pakistan
This Literature review explored the concept of westernization and its impact on Pakistani society over time.
2.2 What is Culture?
Culture was a notoriously troublesome term to outline. In 1952, the American anthropologists, kroeber, and Kluckhohn, critically reviewed ideas and definitions of culture and compiled a list of 164 completely different definitions. The word ‘culture’ came from the Latin religious cult, which implied ‘care’, and from the French colere which implied ‘to till’ as in ’till the ground’. . “Carla illustrated culture as the common examples of practices and connections, intellectual builds, and passionate understanding that were learned through a procedure of socialization”. These common examples decided the individuals from a culture group while conjointly recognizing those of another bunch. However Hofstede, G outlined culture as “collective programming of the mind that distinguishes the members of one class of individuals from another.”Hofstede made the necessary point that although bound aspects of culture were physically Visible, their meaning was invisible: ‘their cultural meaning lies exactly and solely within the means these Practices were understood by the insiders. For instance, a gesture, for example, the ‘ring gesture’ (thumb and index finger touching) might be translated as passing on understanding, endorsement or acknowledgment in the USA, the UK, and Canada, however as an affront in a few Mediterranean nations. Thus, the decision of dress can be deciphered distinctively by various gatherings of individuals, as far as Signs of riches, pomposity, suitability, and so on. Additionally, Culture was a bond that tied the individuals of a district or community together. It was that one common bond that brought the individuals of a community together. The customs and traditions that the individuals of a community followed, the festivals they celebrated, the sort of coverage they wore, the food they ate, and most significantly, the cultural values they adhered to, bound them together(Manali Oak). Whereas the norms of any culture ought to be relevant to any or all the individuals of that culture, it was also true that those norms were going to be relevant in numerous degrees for
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various individuals. It was this fascinated mix of culture in anthropology and sociology as a macro construct and in psychology as a personal construct that made understanding culture tough but fascinating. Our failure within the past to acknowledge the existence of individual differences in constructs and ideas of culture had without a doubt aided in the formation and maintenance of stereotypes (Matsumoto).
2.3 Diffusion of Western Culture in Pakistan
Over the years, Pakistan’s culture had adopted several different traits from western culture. This westernization was observable in a number of aspect of the nation including Food, clothing, Media and Festival Celebration.
Daily times (2008) stated that insight of accelerating the economic process, it was troublesome to predict the extent of the longer term influence of Western civilization on these eastern cultures and their lifestyles. Owing to excessive western influence, the Pakistanis had opened themselves up. The excessive assimilation had wiped off the standard Pakistani culture. The extended and nectar family system, a hallmark of Pakistani culture, had slowly died away, particularly amongst the elite categories, which were more exposed to the American ways and lifestyle. The young generation rarely cared for the old parents and so, sadly, old age homes were established. The number of practicing Muslims had decreased. In those days far less number of Muslim went to mosques than people did a decade back. The meal preferences had modified from flatbread and rice to Subway, KFC, and McDonald’s. Instead of traditional drinks, Pepsi and coke had penetrated the homes. CITATION zai09 l 1033 (zainykhas, 2009)
The adolescent of today believed in autonomy and uniqueness and thus we had seen an ascent in the mental issue, separations and crime rates (suicides and rapes).The conventional idea of home-cooked food in our culture was being supplanted by fast food dinners from famous restaurants like KFC, Pizza Hut, and McDonald. The Pakistani dishes which were well known for their taste, scarcely appear to discover acknowledgment among the adolescent. As of today, western beverages were used to such an extent that it felt like they belong to our culture while our traditional drink had lost its value among adults. The introduction of energy drinks also had played a part in diminishing the use of our traditional drinks. CITATION Haj14 l 1033 (Parviaz, 2014)
A dilemma most Pakistanis were confronting at this time, particularly the adolescent. Every nation had its own particular mother language and they were a method for correspondence as well as a piece of their culture. CITATION ahm08 l 1033 (Amjad, 2008) In her research found
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that the greater parts of the general population were not pleased to talk our own language now and this was more likely to be found in the middle and high society members.
Most Pakistanis moved far from their mother language and embraced English. By receiving English we were embracing western language as well as the western way of CITATION ahm08 l 1033 (Amjad, 2008)life, qualities, traditions and conventions and in the process; we overlooked our own culture. English was not their identity but they nevertheless continue learning it to get to domains of power or higher jobs. English education was one of the mean of creating and widening distance among the social classes in Pakistan; while bringing the elite class closer to the center (West) in terms of its worldview, it had also distanced it from the worldview of the vast majority of the indigenous population.CITATION MTa12 l 1033 (Yaqoob ; Zubair, 2012)
Western influence was seen all around, but most specifically it was seen in the way Pakistanis had started dressing up. The fashion of western culture became common in the nation with traditional and cultural wearing being characterized as old fashion. The fashion that became popular in western culture was also popularized in the Pakistani culture especially by the young generation. Also, Pakistan fashion industry played a big role in fashion westernization as it was the mean through which fashion spread. CITATION ahm08 l 1033 (Amjad, 2008)Furthermore, the culture of date and alcohol parties spread throughout Pakistan and youngster were following the western trend. Scholars like CITATION Reh03 l 1033 (Santos, 2000) had observed that although the themes of romantic love were abounded in Urdu and English Literatures, in reality, romantic love and sex were taboos in Pakistani society.CITATION Reh03 l 1033 (Santos, 2000) In a study of young women studying English Literature at Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, reported that several of the young women she interviewed had either dated or had boyfriends or felt the desire for romance but curbed it fearing the familial or societal disapproval.
CITATION Reh03 l 1033 (Santos, 2000) Observed that the threat the foreign culture posed was ‘the erosion of belief in the ability of native culture and language to deal with the modern world’. This forced them to bring some changes in the process of learning and teaching in the class room as John Gray (2000) exemplifies that ‘just as Coca-Cola can be used in popular (if theologically unorthodox) religious ceremonies in Central America, so too were course books subject (at least in theory) to change in the language classroom’.
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Textbooks usually did not remain limited to the realm of a specific subject. Being representatives of educational discourse, they did provided significant information about the worldview, socio-cultural practices and participation in society in broader terms. Quite effectively, such information was used not only to shape the learners’ mindsets; but it also functioned effectively for slotting the members of a society into different social classes. CITATION Reh03 l 1033 (Santos, 2000)However, there was little known about the impact of western culture on religious practices. The study conducted by Kausar Suhail indicated that Pakistani Muslims maintained their link with the deceased through cultural and religious rituals, such as performing prayers, reciting holy verses, talking and dreaming about the deceased, doing charity, visiting graves, and arranging communal gatherings. The prime purpose of many of these practices was the forgiveness of the deceased. Grief reactions seemed to be determined by the nature of death, prior relationships with the deceased, the reaction of society and gender of the bereaved. Religion provided a strong basis for coping and adjustment of the bereaved, through rationalizing and accepting the death. Hence it can be said that Pakistani culture had strong belief in Religious practices. CITATION Nai06 l 1033 (Jamil, 2006)2.4 Role of Media in Westernization of Pakistan Culture
Tomlinson (1991) argued that due to global media the west was creating its dominance over under developing nations. This globalization was also introducing the new western cultural trends among the viewers of third world countries. Hamelink (1983) stated that west had dominated media groups and it was a universal truth that a culture was promoted when the media of one country was influenced by the media of the independent country. So the media of third world countries were under the influence of developed nation and they were promoting their own cultural values. According to a different critical school of thoughts, cable network and satellite television were the major players to promote the western cultural ideology among the youth. Now youth was the target of mass media and media was trying hard to capture the mind of youth. Najia (2003) stated that cable television was promoting the foreign cultural trends among the youth and foreign cultural trends were most popular among the young generation of Pakistan. Quraat (1998) indicated that PTV dramas which were considered the family dramas were also following foreign media contents and were also promoting the foreign cultural trends. CITATION MSh14 l 1033 (Juni, 2014)
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The part of broad communications in Pakistani society was tri-dimensional that was advising the general population, instructing the unknowledgeable and giving excitement. A review led by Gilani Research Foundation, which completed by Gallup Pakistan uncovered that the greater part (52%) of all Pakistanis view media as a wellspring of mindfulness, while 29% accepted generally. Broad communications gave every one of us a stage to voice our feelings on various social and political issues and offer data with each other. Media had the energy to change the perspectives and suppositions of Pakistanis. Once in a while media distorts the circumstance, makes contention adding to more regrettable conditions. It was difficult to evade invading impact of broad communications. A huge extent of people had high measures of media Exposure more in men than in ladies. In developing nation like Pakistan high media introduction had factually critical negative impact on body image of dissatisfaction of youthful college undergraduate.CITATION Kha13 l 1033 (Khalid et al, 2011)Pakistan was one of those developing nations which were experiencing Americanization and cultural influence because of the outside stations on satellite transmission and digital Telecom Company, and the circumstance stayed obscured due to the absence of research and examination in this field. “The greater the exposure was to foreign channels, the greater was the effects on a modern orientation of youths. In a research conducted with the educated youth of Multan about the effect of the foreign media channels such as cable TV on the mindsets of people, research concluded that Although the current change had subliminal effects on Pakistan youth, however, the younger generation was more vulnerable who were being nurtured under the petty influence of liberal media. CITATION Muh09 l 1033 (Ashraf khan (Ph.D), 2009)
International entertainment channels had harmful effect on the ethics of Pakistani children and our own media was also dominated by Indian and Western thoughts. Our media was not paying desired attention towards promoting eastern culture and Islamic culture and norms. Majority of Pakistanis agree that media without necessary regulations were responsible for spreading vulgarity and that Pakistani government must have banned all unethical content accessible to Pakistanis whatever the source of mass media was. Only truth should have been communicated to the masses in order to increase the trust level of people on media CITATION Ama09 l 1033 (Amaima Yawar Khan etal, 2009).
Moreover, it was noticed that the elite society in Pakistan was antagonistic to their culture and was more fascinated to take after western culture in their day to day life. This was called upon as western cultural penetration, which was gradually disintegrating Pakistani culture unnoticeably. This was referred as an issue on the grounds that in the
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cycle of the general public the new customs were set from the upper social class and afterward took after by the lower social classes. The main role played in increasing such behavior was because of the media, which was spreading the norms of the west. Pakistani society’s lifestyles, family relations, dressing, education changed drastically and was not what it used to be some years back. CITATION soc15 l 1033 (Uk Essay, 2015)Globalization was the interconnectivity between various in which the entire world resembled a town. Globalization was the result of broad communications and broad communications advanced the idea of worldwide town. The substance investigation discoveries in term of movies, dramatizations and music demonstrated that Pakistani media was exceedingly impacted by western media in light of the fact that to compete for the foreign media, Pakistani media was following the substance of foreign media. For example, TV dramatizations and music shows of Pakistani TV stations absolutely portrayed Indian culture. Pakistani media was playing the outside dramatizations and movies with no confinements and this flexibility forced negative effect on Pakistani youth and furthermore on Pakistani Islamic culture. Pakistani dramatizations were anticipating the western culture and this projection was a great danger to the national culture of Pakistan. Our Pakistani media industry was advancing new form patterns of outside nations. Pakistani excitement channels were making and playing the music and move of the western culture. Pakistani media groups promoted the foreign customs and traditions which replaced our national and local traditions and cultural identities. CITATION MSh14 l 1033 (Juni, 2014)Pakistan was an integral part of the quickly globalizing world and it was not conceivable to protect your culture from worldwide impacts of the predominant western social impacts anymore. The simplicity of movement and stream of thoughts through print, electronic and online networking was changing the belief, behavior, and attitude of the general population even in the remote corners of the world. Pakistani society and its cultural values were likewise subject to this phenomenon.
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CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This chapter comprises of research methods that were adopted by the researchers throughout the study. It tells about the data collection technique and the instrument being used; the research design; the target population; the size of the sample and the data analysis techniques. This research used the primary method of data collection through the use of questionnaire survey which was restricted to quantitative responses.
3.1 Dimension of Research
In quantitative method there were three designs; exploratory design, descriptive design and explanatory design. The research was carried out with the application of the descriptive (survey) design, focused on the students and youngster from general population. The research provided data on the impact of western culture on Pakistan and also the factors that were responsible for the westernization in the Country.
3.2 Time Orientation
The study had data that was collected within a one point in time specification only. The responses on the survey Questionnaire from target population were gathered only once in the time frame. This technique was ideal for the research as the study does not aim to identify the changes in target population overtime.
3.3 Data Collection
This research was based on quantitative approach. Quantitative methods were research techniques that were used to gather quantitative data – information dealing with numbers and anything that was measurable. This method best suits the objective of research because it provides researchers with descriptive and hard data on numbers of people exhibiting certain behaviors, attitudes etc. Survey method was use to collect data and questionnaires were used as research instrument. The Questionnaire consisted of 15 Questions which were first distributed to 10 participants from population of interest to make sure that questions were easy to understand and had no errors. The finalized Questionnaire was formed on Google Docs and link was shared among the target population for responses.
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3.4 Sample Split
The target population for this research was university students and youngster from general population between the ages of 20-35 years. In order to get concise and better understanding of the target population on the impact of western culture, the sample size of around 150 participants was chosen. This study was restricted to the population of Karachi only due to time constrain.
3.5 Data Reliability
Reliability of a questionnaire refers to its ability to yield the same data when it is re-administered under the same conditions. The reliability of data was important as it helps to generalize the findings of study to the wider population and provide accurate understanding of results of the research objective. Data reliability therefore was checked through random sampling to get clear checks on the information that was presented and provided within the Thesis.
3.6 Data Analysis
The study utilized first hand data which came from the chosen respondents who answered the survey-questionnaires given to them. After collection, the data was prepared for data entry. The coding of all the information on the questionnaire was done with the aid of tables and pie charts which provided concise understanding of the results and observation of the research topic.
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Chapter 4: Analysis and Results
This chapter provided an overall analysis of the topic at hand that was to understand how Westernization had affected the culture of Pakistan. The chapter presented the result of Survey Questionnaire in tabular form. The questionnaire result was gathered through Google Docs and results were analyzed using Pie chart and Bar graph.
Table 4.1: Gender
Answer Options Response count Response percentage
Male 45 36%
Female 78 62.4%
Prefer not to say 2 1.6%
Data had been acquired from the random individual of both genders. The ratio of a Female participant was greater than the Male participant while only minor respondent prefers not to state their gender.
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Table 4.2: Personality traits
Which trait describes you best? Answer options Response count Response percentage
Individualistic 53 43.1%
Collectivist 25 20.3%
Optimistic 37 30.1%
Pessimistic 8 6.5%
Figure 4.2: Personality Traits
Data was gathered on all personality type of individual among youngster. The chart shows that individualistic trait was dominant personality type while only small proportion of respondent had pessimistic trait. There was also more number of optimistic respondents than collectivist.
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Table 4.3: Individualistic
To be considered someone who is an individual is important? Answer options Response count Response percentage
Yes 85 67.5%
No 11 8.7%
Maybe 30 23.8%
Figure 4.3: Individualistic
The evidence from this Pie chart showed that to the majority of a respondent to be individual was important with Yes response of 67.5% (85 respondents) while more than quarter of respondent were indecisive hence respondent Maybe 23.8% (30 respondents). 8.7% (11 respondents) believed to be individual was not important at all.
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Table 4.4: Music taste
Having an independent music taste is highly valuable to you. Answer options Response count Response percentage
Yes 62 49.6%
No 35 28%
Maybe 28 22.4%
Figure 4.4: Music Taste
This Pie chart showed that out of 125 responses, 49.6% agreed that having an independent music was important while the Maybe response rate was 22.4% and No response rate was 28%. The response count for Yes was more than double which was 62 then for maybe which was 28. 35 respondents marked No for individual music taste.
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Table 4.5: Person modesty and Clothing
You are of the opinion that a person’s modesty is defined through his or her clothing? Answer options Response count Response percentage
Yes 48 38.7%
No 46 37.1%
Maybe 30 24.2%
Figure 4.5: Person modesty and Clothing
The result in this Pie chart presented that there was a minor difference of 1.7% between yes and No response percentage, with yes dominating the response rate at 38.7% followed by No response of 37.1% and then Maybe response of 24.2%.
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Table 4.6: Wearing style
You prefer western wear over traditional eastern wear? Response count Response percentage
Eastern wear 38 30.6%
Western Wear 31 25%
Cultural wear 35 28.2%
Religious wear 20 16.1%
Figure 4.6: Wearing style
This Question identified the type of wear people prefer; as can be seen that Eastern wear dominated the society with 30.6% result which comprises of 38 respondents, followed by Cultural wear comprising of 28.2% with response count of 35. The least preferred wear style was Religious wear which only 16.1% respondents choose, a response count of 20; whereas 25% of response percentage was in favor of western wear which accounted for 31 respondents.
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Table 4.7: Traditional versus Western wear
Your parents prefer you to dress in traditional cultural wear over western wear? Response count Response percentage
Strongly disagree 9 7.1%
Disagree 18 14.3%
Neutral 54 42.9%
Agree 32 25.4%
Strongly Agree 13 10.3%
Figure 4.7: Traditional versus Western wear
These were the frequencies of the 130 respondents. The respondents who Strongly agreed were 13, who Agreed were 32, Neutral was 58 which was the highest, the one who Disagree were 18 and Strongly Disagree were 9 which was the lowest of all. The percent of strongly agree was 10.3%. Agree was 25.4%, Neutral was 42.9, Disagree was 14.3% and strongly disagree was 7.1%. Out of all respondents, 4 respondents didn’t answer this Question.
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Table 4.8: English Language
How far do you agree with the claim that English should be the only language taught in schools? Answer options Response count Response percentage
Yes 42 33.6%
No 61 48.8%
Maybe 22 17.6%
Figure 4.8: English Language
The Pie chart clearly showed that majority of survey population was against English being the only taught language in schools. About half of the response rate was in favor of No comprising of 48.8% while 17.6% reported May be. Only 33.6% which was 42 respondents agreed with the statement.
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Table 4.9: Importance of Traditional belief
The traditional belief that women should look after household and men should be a breadwinner is still important to you? Response count Response percentage
Strongly disagree 20 15.9%
Disagree 39 31%
Neutral 38 30.2%
Agree 22 17.5%
Strongly Agree 7 5.6%
Figure 4.9: Importance of Traditional belief
From the above table and pie chart, it was clearly evident that 31% of the respondent Disagree with the traditional belief accompany with 15.9% strongly disagree percentage. 30.2% of the respondents were Neutral on belief while 17.5% Agree and 5.6% of the respondent strongly agreed with the statement.
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Table 4.10: Family Structure
You believe that extended family structure is ideal for living over the nuclear family system? Response count Response percentage
Yes 44 35.2%
No 41 32.8%
Maybe 40 32%
Figure 4.10: Family Structure
From the above result, it can be said that responses regarding ideal family structure were mixed with the only minor difference between the response choices. 35.2% said yes for extended family structure while 32.8% respond with a No and 32% were indecisive so responded maybe.
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Table 4.11: Western Food
The traditional concept of home-cooked food in our culture is being replaced by fast food meals from restaurants like KFC, Pizza Hut, and McDonald? Response count Response percentage
Yes 64 50.4%
No 36 28.3%
Maybe 27 21.3%
Figure 4.11: Western Food
The above pie chart presented that 50.4% of the respondents were of the opinion that home food cooked food in our society was being replaced by fast food meals. However, 28.3% of the respondents were of the opinion that the statement was not correct while 21.3% of the respondent choose Maybe, hence were indecisive.
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11. To what extent you believe that Western programs have influenced you to be more open-minded towards relationships with the opposite gender.
Table 4.12: Relationship with opposite gender
1 Strongly disagree
5 Strongly Agree
Figure 4.12: Relationship with opposite gender
These were the responses of 125 respondents. The respondents who strongly agree with the statement were 25.6% being second highest of all choices, who agree were 16.8%, the one who were neutral were 37.6% being the highest, 20.4% disagreed and 9.6% strongly disagree with the given statement.
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Table 4.13: Ethical Values
Is Western culture likely reason for the loss of ethical values in your culture? Response count Response percentage
Strongly disagree 7 5.6%
Disagree 17 13.5%
Neutral 28 22.2%
Agree 57 45.2%
Strongly Agree 17 13.5%
Table 4.13: Ethical Values
The above table and pie chart proved that 13.5 percent of the respondents strongly agree, 45.2 percent agreed which was the highest, 22.2 percent were neutral, disagree rate was 13.5 percent and the one who strongly disagree with the statement compiled to 13.5%.
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13. Increased exposure to internet, television, movies, and video games has increased drug abuse, violence, and related vices in Pakistan?
Table 4.14: Impact of Media
1 Strongly disagree
5 Strongly Agree
Figure 4.14: Impact of Media
The data above clearly presented that high proportion of respondents believe that media was likely reason spread of bad culture in our country. 20% strongly agreed and 32.8% agreed with the statement-making overall 52.8% agreement with the statement. 26.4% response percentage was neutral, 9.6% disagree and 11.2% strongly disagree with the above statement.
Impact of Western culture in Pakistan 28
Table 4.15: Adoption of Western culture
Is it important to adopt western cultural values to maintain unity in the world? Response count Response percentage
Strongly disagree 24 18.9%
Disagree 41 32.3%
Neutral 36 28.3%
Agree 23 18.1%
Strongly Agree 3 2.4%
Figure 4.15: Adoption of Western culture
The above table and pie chart showed that of 124 respondents only 3 (2.4%) strongly agreed, 23(18.1%) agreed, 36(28.3%) respondents were neutral, 41(32.3%) disagreed and the remaining 24 (18.9%) strongly disagreed with the above statement.
Impact of Western culture in Pakistan 29
Table 4.16: Human and Gender Rights
You agree with the fact that western culture has helped to gain better human and gender rights in Pakistan? Response count Response percentage
Strongly disagree 16 12.7%
Disagree 35 27.8%
Neutral 33 26.2%
Agree 36 28.6%
Strongly Agree 6 4.8%
Figure 4.16: Human and Gender Rights
The table and pie chart showed that overall 33.4% of respondents agree that western culture had helped gain better human and gender rights in Pakistan.40.5% of respondent disagreed with the given statement and 28.6% of respondents were neutral on a statement.
Impacts of western culture on Pakistan 30
CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This chapter provided the final conclusions and recommendations that were shared on the Impact of western culture on Pakistan society. The conclusion was drawn from the survey result which provided a way for future research on the topic.
Movement was the stuff and essence of life, both for individual and the society. From the independence day of August 14, 1947, up to date, Pakistani society was in transformation. The society of Pakistan was unique and dynamic with a blend of different culture and ethical way of life, but no department of life – be it financial, social, religious or recreational – had been free from the impact of western culture. Western culture was assuming a noteworthy part in deciding the way of life of Pakistani individuals, particularly among youth. The feeling of uniqueness was more vital than being collectivist society. The media, long range informal communication locales and Globalization were assuming a noteworthy part in a change of Pakistani society.
Western culture philosophies were spread all around the world and impact-sly affected the Asian countries. Individuals who were in their initial adolescents and individuals in age class of 20-35 years were profoundly affected by the media. Media decided the way of life and state of mind of individuals in each part of individual life whether it was culture, fashion, religion, education, thinking and so forth. One noteworthy effect of the western world was observed in our country was in language. The English language had to the greater extent had replaced the use of our national language. The purpose behind such a spread was the change in our education framework which was advancing western training system, for example, significantly more significance was given to O/A level education framework than to our national board. Another part of westernization in Pakistan was in the fashion industry. Despite the fact that our national wear was shalwar Kameez yet barely individuals were found in national wear aside from the Independence Day. In addition effect of western culture was seen through changes in religious esteem. The adolescent populace of Pakistan was profoundly hypnotized by the western lifestyle and had overlooked the religious lifestyle which was the first philosophy of Pakistan. Albeit Pakistani culture was still managed by Islamic esteems to a more prominent degree yet the westernization on religious esteems didn’t go unnoticed. However, Westernization had helped to brought better human rights especially gender equity in Pakistan. Additionally, it had helped in the spread of healthy lifestyle ways of life in the country.
Impacts of western culture on Pakistan 31
There was no uncertainty in the claim that effects of western culture were common in Pakistan culture. Nonetheless, it was inappropriate to express all the impact of westernization as negative, similar to the two side of coin westernization had likewise positive and negative impact in the meantime. Westernization had been a piece of the modernization procedure, which in no sense was viewed as destructive. While then again, there was a need to focus on the boundless effect of western culture on Pakistani society loss of convention, culture and religious method for the way of life. Overall this research paper demonstrated a positive outcome for the across the board effect of westernization on Pakistan.
Westernization had a major impact on the youngster as well as middle-aged people preferences for fashion, health, education, media and overall personality. The westernization was a good in the sense that it had brought positive changes in some aspect of our society but it had also brought a number of negative effects in the society. However, it was hard to conclude on the topic as there was not much research in this area field, hence it was recommended to carry out a well-developed research study at a larger scale to comment on the impact of westernization in Pakistan.
Impact of Western Culture on Pakistan 32
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