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In recent years issues of disadvantage and academic achievement have stirred to the center of policy – makers’ schema and academic debate. Poor performance in mathematics is particularly recognized as a major problem in schools serving disadvantaged communities in Botswana. As clarified, in Chapter 1, mathematics is a mainstay of almost all the streams in academic areas. Given the vital role mathematics plays in tertiary education and most careers, it is not only constructive but also essential to establish some of the factors that enable achievement in mathematics in disadvantaged schools. This study will hopefully simplify the quest to improve performance in mathematics in disadvantaged schools and establish what schools can learn from one another. Although studies have been conducted in other countries regarding factors that facilitate achievement in mathematics and academically in terms of parental involvement, few such studies were conducted in disadvantaged schools in Botswana. In accordance to Hughes (1999) the most important assumptions from qualitative study on factors related to accomplishment in schools are that (a) teachers are crucial resources; (b) the alignment of the student body matters; (c) schools make a transformation, and (d) physical facilities, class size, curriculum, instructional strategies and other resources impact student learning indirectly through their effect on the conduct of teachers and students.

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