1. Leadership is the state of mind expected by those searching for something other than what’s expected, who are focused on accomplishing an objective and whose conviction they figure out how to transmit to others through excitement and positive thinking to achieve a shared objective.
2. Fidel Castro was a standout amongst the most noticeable socialist pioneers of the most recent century. He was the Head administrator, President and President of Cuba and effectively influenced the nation into a one-party communist to state. In the early life, Castro began off as an insubordination to conservative governments in the Dominican Republic and Colombia and inside a brief span turned into the pioneer of the comrade unrest and ruled Cuba for just about 6 decades.
3. The aim of this paper is to analyze leadership qualities of Fidel Castro and develop lessons in present day’s context.
EARLY LIFE OF FIDEL CASTRO
4. Fidel Castro was born on August 13, 1926, close Birán, in Cuba’s eastern Oriente Province. He was the illegitimate child of Angel Castro y Argiz and her mistress Lina Ruz Gonzalez. From the childhood he was a very bright student at school and decided to study law. In 1945, Castro entered graduate school at the College of Havana. There he turned out to be politically concerned and needed to convey social equity to his nation. He thought the destitution in Cuba was entirely superfluous. Castro was moved on from graduate school in 1950 and started honing as a legal counselor. He turned out to be very much presumed for detesting American impact in Cuban undertakings. He comprehended that unrest was the best way to propel Cuban patriotism. He went to Mexico to design a guerilla attack of Cuba. There he met Che Guevara, who helped him actualizing his political convictions and military designs. Castro’s radical powers began the upheaval in December 1958. Castro turned into the head administrator of Cuba in February 1959 at 32 years old.
5. In 1945, when enrolled at the law school in the University of Havana, Castro was politically illiterate but within a short time he got involved in the politics of Cuba. He joined the University Committee, which opposed the intervention of the US in the Caribbean and fought for the Independence of Puerto Rico. In 1947, Castro joined a communist gathering driven by presidential competitor Chibas. Its point was to anchor a legitimate government and political flexibility. It likewise paid noteworthy significance to social changes and financial autonomy. What’s more, Castro turned into the leader of the University Committee for Democracy in the Dominican Republic. The board of trustees chose to attack the Dominican Republic and topple Rafael Trujillo who was its conservative president and a partner of the USA. Around 1200 men joined the insubordination and propelled the intrusion from Cuba driven by General Juan Rodriguez who was banished from Dominican powers. Be that as it may, they couldn’t remain against the US and Dominican powers and crushed. Fidel Castro was fortunate to get away from the mass capture.
6. Castro made plan to uproot the dictator government General Batista who was supported by the military, Cuban elite and US. He assaulted Moncada military quarters on 26 July alongside 150 supporters to topple Batista however he fizzled and got caught. Be that as it may, this episode raised his prevalence among the Cubans. While in prison he kept up control of the development. Following 2 years on 15 May 1955, Castro left correctional facility and moved to Mexico. There with Ernesto “Che” Guevara, he made another arrangement to oust the Batista government. They concocted another technique known as “Guerrilla Fighting”. On the Next year, Castro assaulted the administration powers again yet like prior, fizzled. Castro, alongside Guevara and his sibling Raul Castro fled toward the south-eastern drift.
7. In 1958, Castro and his group, launched military operations throughout the key areas of Cuba. It resulted into the collapse of the government and Batista fled to Dominican Republic. Castro became a national hero. While Jose Miro Cardona was voted as the Prime Minister for Cuba, Castro became the commander-in-chief of the military. However, as a result of Miro’s sudden resignation, Castro became the Prime Minister of Cuba on February 16, 1959.
Castro as Prime Minister
8. Castro became the Prime Minister of Cuba with a condition that the powers of the Prime Minister should be enhanced. As the Prime Minister, Castro launched various reforms which were mainly focused to end the economic domination of the US. Though he denied himself as a communist and argued of having Marxist-type governance, many of his policies reflect the Soviet-style control of economy and the communist influence on the governance. His reformative policies were widely criticized which led to the formation of anti-Castro groups. Furthermore, Cuba agreed to buy oil from Soviet, which led to seizure of the US-owned refineries in Cuba.
9. In April 1961, thousands of exiles invaded Cuba at the “Bay of Pigs” to overthrow the regime of Castro. Despite being taken aback by this surprise attack, the military was able to restrict the insurgents. The toll of the number of dead went past hundreds. In 1965, Castro formed the Cuba Communist party. Step by step, he turned into the main representative of the Third World nations. Cuba turned into an individual from the OAM (Organization of American States), with Cuba’s administration being called first National Congress of the Cuban Communist Party. Cuba’s rise as a communist state implied canceling the situation of the President and the Prime Minister and appropriation of another constitution in view of the lines of the Soviet Union. Castro was proffered with the situation of the Presidency of both Council of State and Council of Minister—s, which made him the head of state and head of government.
10. On July 31, 2006, Castro transferred all his powers to his brother Raul Castro, on account of his failing health. However, with time, his health recovered and he took part in the important issues of the government. Two years later, Castro gave up his position as the head of the Communist party and the Commander-in-chief of the military as well. Though Raul substituted him, he gave a provision that allowed him to seek advice and consultation from Castro in matters of great importance. His retirement was announced on February 24, 2008. On 26 November 2016, Fidel Castro died at the age of 90.
11. LEADERSHIP ANALYSIS
Leaders often emerge when they portray qualities appropriate to address prevailing societal challenges. The independent Cuba in Latin America witnessed a serious development crisis during the autocratic rule of Colonel Fulgencio Batista from the 1940s.
This crisis was characterized by a high scale of corruption that resulted in severe socio-economic setbacks. The disappointment of Cubans in urban and country territories activated prominent appearances from understudy developments, political unions and the surprising furnished Cuban upheaval led by Fidel Castro. The predictable progressive philosophies delineated by Fidel Castro from his understudy life, through his non military personnel profession and furnished unrest, rendered his rise in 1959 opportune as most of the populace required change. As indicated by Hollander, the development of an appealing pioneer gets from ‘the need of new, progressive political frameworks for legitimation and for filling the hole deserted by the annihilation of pre-progressive establishments and qualities.’
Fidel Castro emerged as he inspired many Cubans with charismatic abilities to revolutionise a long time detested system. The communist framework championed by the pioneer accepted the accountability to address the emergency with a directional authority style. Albeit a few components of free enterprise could be discovered particularly in the area of tourism, Fidel Castro generally utilized communism as a political framework to address societal issues for 50 years. Going through the cool war and the post-chilly war, Fidel Castro’s administration survived the rocket emergency, the Bay of Pigs Invasion, financial authorizations, various overthrow endeavors and, the fall of the Soviet Union. The versatility shown by Fidel Castro and his adherents could empower the previous to ‘re-develop’ when confronting new circumstances from inside or past national limits. Having shown significant initiative viability in the areas of wellbeing, instruction, agribusiness, sports among other financial related exercises, Fidel Castro had anyway not changed political power. Circumstance and Leadership Emergence.
The statist and corporatist policies of President Batista failed to be effective in a
corrupt system reflected by an advanced degree of bribery and embezzlement.
During the rule of president Batista, there was a huge socio-economic gap between self-interested politicians and ordinary Cubans. The key issues involved were: corruption, lack of accountability, no freedom of press and speech, political oppression, illiteracy, inadequate access to health facilities and ‘petite bourgeoisie’ based on exploitative ideologies. 9 These vices affected the society negatively causing economic regression and poor standard of living among the ordinary citizensThe Cuban1940 Constitution was suspended and most socio-political rights dropped including the privilege to strike. With the intrigue of some wealthiest sugar manor proprietors, Batista kept on managing a stagnating economy. 10 The shaky circumstance under Batista’s harsh administer prompted expanding prominent requests as individuals were looking for scope of objectives for consistent improvement. Correspondence, a key factor in the accomplishment of the insurgency was utilized to spread arrangement of triumphs against the consistent armed force and in particular interest for more well known help from provincial and urban zones. Radio Rebelde was utilized by the Guerilla as the principle channel of dispersing data to the general population. From February 1958, data concerning fights were communicated twice at night. 21 On Fidel Castro’s correspondence capacities, Delgado ascribes to the previous logical characteristics. Through his investigation made on Fidel Castro’s discourse – ‘Words to the Intellectuals’ – Delgado makes out Fidel Castro’s repetitive utilization of ideographs to make a typical progressive front for Cubans. 22 Castro’s epideictic talk abilities were seen in the courts, in anticipation of administrative considerations and stylized discourses meaning to make a feeling of progressive mentality and solidarity among Cubans. 23 The authority rise of Fidel Castro was hence to a great extent supported by his explanatory correspondence capacities proposed to adjust Cubans towards a typical line of thought.
Fidel Castro’s Leadership Style in Cuba Leaders often tend to define the situation and set a way forward. They legitimise their actions on the basis of their persuasive account of the situation. As a result of such behaviours, the social construction of the problem legitimizes the deployment of a particular form of authority. 26 In Cuba, the authority depicted by Fidel Castro had adopted various forms at different stages of his leadership. The latter’s leadership exhibited personal qualities, relational abilities and resilience towards prevailing situations.
Personal Traits and Charismatic Leadership Style
Fidel Castro emerged in 1959 as the new leader of the Cuban state and was considered by many Cubans (especially Cubans frustrated by Batista’s regime) as the ideal person to address the situation. During Fidel Castro’s first televised speech in January 1959, a white dove landed on his shoulder and another one perched upon the podium. Both doves stayed in their respective positions till the end of the allocution. The appearance of the doves became a serious point of discussion. The presence of the pigeons turned into a genuine purpose of exchange. In spite of the fact that the universal press depicted the display as an unusual mishap including ‘birds of peace,’ numerous Cubans based on their religious or social tendencies trusted Fidel Castro was picked by otherworldly powers to lead Cuba with the required characteristics. All the more along these lines, the individual characteristics Fidel Castro prior displayed while in the ‘Sierra Maestra’ kept on increasing well known authenticity in the administration of open issues. As portrayed by Weber, Charismatic pioneers frequently clarify their rise as a type of fate. ‘Magnetic conviction alters men ‘from inside’ and shapes material and social conditions as indicated by its progressive will.’ Although Weber sees Charismatic pioneers as outstanding mobilisers, they were not just progressive. Along these lines, they could be both progressive and reactionary by endeavoring to recapture the past so as to continuing to another future.
Fidel Castro had the aptitude of regaining the past in order to effect change in the society as he strove to align his ideologies to that of the positive ideas of the ‘father of the nation’ – José Martí. Trust, charisma, communication, determination, courage, mobilization persuasion and tolerance were useful because most Cubans had not fully recovered from the tyrannical rule of BatistaIn spite of the fact that Fidel Castro exhibited a portion of these characteristics, he couldn’t endure sees in opposition to that of the upheaval. Under the pennant of the Revolution, initiative rotated around an individual (Fidel Castro) who appeared to have answers to individuals’ distractions. He was relentlessly adjusting the general population towards the possibility of communism with the state at the administration of its natives at all the levels. 30 The responsibility and the focal point of the pioneer in the initiative procedure at all levels of assignment execution offered validity to his vision. However, along the line a few Cubans wound up hesitant to cling to the vision in light of the impressive level of penances appended to it. ‘Throughout the years, Fidel Castro, has based the authenticity of his administration on the ethical commitment to free and shield Cubans from severe settler powers, as well as from household foes of the transformation.’
The Relational Aspect of Castro’s Leadership
The developmental crisis in Cuba required a leader who could regularly interact with followers in order to effectively respond to multiple societal demands. In promoting socialist ideologies, Fidel Castro could often move toward the people to get feedback and in return mobilise them towards a collective goal. ‘The real ‘supply’ of initiative is driven by a previous societal ‘request’, which the political enterprise of an eventual pioneer looks to fulfill.’ Leaders decipher issues, prescribe way to deal with comprehend them; transmit individual dreams as arrangements and in this manner assemble supporters to actualize those arrangements. A critical number of researchers in the line with Macgregor Burns (1978) and Bernard Bass (1990) see initiative as a dynamic, open social framework, a rational procedure, as opposed to only various sporadic individual acts. Cubans required a pioneer with whom they will trade impact and in the meantime a cognizant pioneer equipped for tending to debasement and outside misuse among different indecencies. The greater part of these indecencies were genuinely tended to under the authority of Fidel Castro. The trading of impact between the pioneer and adherents was existent however to a specific degree.
Transformational and Transactional Leadership
The socialist principles implemented under Fidel Castro’s rule bore both transformational and transactional facets. As perceived by Northouse, transactional leadership refers to the exchange between leaders and their followers. The nature of the exchange is ‘behave as such and be rewarded accordingly’. Fidel Castro trained his supporters to submit to communist standards and be compensated based on their endeavors. Then again, Transformational initiative is the procedure whereby the pioneer makes an association with supporters that raises an aggregate level of inspiration and profound quality. This kind of pioneer is mindful to the requirements of the devotees and consequently attempts to set up a stage for adherents to achieve their fullest potential. 38 Although less saw in Fidel Castro’s political administration – chiefly described by a directional model – the transformational feature was socially huge. As talked about by Burns, upset is a whole adjustment of the totally social framework. It implies the development of a radical new philosophy bowed to dispose of the past set up framework. Notwithstanding, he additionally places that, ‘the unadulterated type of insurgency is uncommon practically speaking.’ 39 In the Cuban case, change for the most part saw at social and basic levels. The wellbeing, training, horticulture and game segments were key cases of change by the communist framework. In the interim at the political level dictatorship endured, as pioneers supporters relations were more value-based.
CRITICISM ON FIDEL CASTRO
12. Castro’s 49-year reign was characterized by a ruthless suppression of freedom of expression. People detained by the government simply for exercising their right to freedom of expression, association and assembly. The government still limits access to the internet as a way of controlling both access to information and freedom of expression. Only 25 percent of the Cuban population is able to get online and just 5 percent of homes have an internet connection.
13. After setting up his temporary government in 1959, Castro sorted out preliminaries of individuals from the past government that brought about many rundown executions. He closed the small industry and converted even the small restaurants and coffee shops to State-owned. This killed commerce, and competition, the country started to resemble one of the Soviet republics.
14. On analyzing the life of the successful leader such as Fidel Castro, the lessons that learnt could be summarized are as follows:
a. Importance of planning, confidence and faith. The fact that Castro had the conviction and the guts to stand up against US for decades, speaks volume about his valor and of course planning, that ultimately led him to successfully launch a socialist government in Cuba.
b. Communication is key to success. Castro was a great orator. His words had the power to put the masses to silence.
c. Knowing the target audience well. Fidel Castro realized it early that in the long run nobody can force a huge mass to do one’s will. Hence it is very important to understand what your target audience wants and then give them the same.
15. Fidel Castro has proven himself over the years to be a successful leader in Cuba. He probably gathered the need to be ruthless when survival is at stake, and probably grasped the need for vision and idealism in any leader who wants to be successful in leading individuals.