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It can be argued that most organisations in existence today have skilled labour that pour in the knowledge it possesses so that organisations are able to achieve their objectives, and in the process maximizing the profits. And for many organisations to reach the pinnacle of success, they have utilized one of the activities in human resource management which is training and development. Training and development in any organisation or film plays a bigger role in the effectiveness of organisations and to the experience of people at work. Training and development are those processes that attempt to provide an employee with information, skills, and an understanding of the organisation and its goals, (Armstrong, 2009). This essay will attempt to describe the training and development process by basing the argument on the four phases of systemic approach in the training and development processes which are; training needs assessment, design of the training, implementation of the training and evaluation of the training.
The term training and development is not a single word but a combination of two terms, and by definition, the term ‘training’ on its own means, ‘the application of formal processes to impart knowledge and help people acquire the skills necessary for them to perform their job satisfactorily’ (Goldstein & Ford, 2002). The definition means that the training which these trainees go through is there to match with the organisation needs. On the other hand, development, according to Armstrong, (2009) means ‘an unfolding process that enable people to progress from a present state of understanding and capability to a future state in which high level skills, knowledge and competencies are required'( p.665). Therefore, development seems to be not really skill-oriented, it just provides a general knowledge and attitudes that is helpful to an employee in positions of management.
The first training and development process will be training needs assessment. Assessing organizational training needs is the diagnostic phase of a training plan as it involves the process of finding out what form of training might be necessary (Armstrong, 2003). In this process, three analyses are performed, which are employee or individual, organizational and task analyses. Training needs analysis is a cornerstone of all processes as it is used to find out the mode of training or form of education to be given to the new recruits. It is also used as a process of gathering data to train the newly recruited personnel with an aim of meeting the films or organizational objectives. Training needs assessment is really a diagnostic phase as it is also required when there are changes taking place within an organisation, these changes can be in the form of new technologies or a decline in the quality of work that need argent organisation reaction, (Goldstein & Ford, 2002). And according to Armstrong (2003), the methods that are used in conducting training needs analysis are; observation, questionnaires, interviews and focus group.
The second training and development process required is design. This process is much concerned with activities included in the training program. It deals with defining, identifying the objectives and scopes, methods and media to be adopted to deliver in a training program, (Bratton & Gold, 1999). Design as one of the processes in training and development behaves like an extension of training needs assessment.
The third process which is also of paramount in training and development is implementation. The process is much into the starting of training and development program (Armstrong, 2003). In this process, the organisation will make sure that the new recruits together with the trainers have reported and are ready to deliver and learn respectively. The process requires that all the resources such as money, vehicles, teaching aids and learning materials are provided and are available for use to help in the execution of the whole process of training.
Lastly, the process requires monitoring and evaluation of training and development. Monitoring and evaluation determines whether the training program has been a success in relation to the objectives. For example, are the new recruits able to fire a gun perfectly or are they able to handle difficult situations all together? According to Mathis and Jackson (2010), they are saying that the process involves ‘gathering data and analyzing it by using the five stages which are; conducting needs analysis, developing measurable objectives and analyzing transfer of training, developing outcome measures and planning and executing the evaluation’ (p.263).
Training and development has been found to be one of the most important processes in the success of many organisations that have imparted necessary skills for its workforce. It can also be opined that the process of training and development is not cheap since the steps that are taken to train the new recruits requires enough resources. The process is mostly suitable for those organisations or films with a stable financial muscle to go through all the steps necessary.

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