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Mars Climate Orbiter

Abstract
Organizations experience setbacks and, in general, the severity of the problems they face are proportional to their objectives.
Mars Climate Orbiter was built in the mid and late 90’s, Mars Climate Orbiter was equipped with the most advanced technology of its time, and had dual redundant systems and copies of triple redundancy software.
It was launched in December 1998. In September 1999, it approached Mars and tried to enter orbit. Then – poof – came out of radio contact! Two days later, it was officially declared “lost”. The probe ventured too close to Mars, fell into its atmosphere and disintegrated. the probe lost its objective. A software error One part of the code dealt with Newton, while the other assumed pounds, which resulted in a difference of ~ 90 km in the predicted and actual altitude.
they have spent $ 193.1 million on the development of spacecraft, $ 91.7 million on the launch and $ 42.8 million on operations just for the ship to sink into the Martian atmosphere due to two programmers.

1- Introduction
Mars Climate Orbiter was a space probe designed to be a smaller and less expensive medium to explore Mars after the loss of Mars Observer 1993 and was launched on the Delta 2 launch vehicle on December 11, 1998. Its mission is to act as an interactive satellite and communications interface for Planet Mars Lander. Together, Mars, Mars and Mars, the planetary map of Mars on the surface of Mars, the biography of the structure of the atmosphere, was to try to detect ice deposits from the surface of the earth and explore the effects of groundwater . Understand its history and its potential to maintain, Egypt has maintained, life.
Now, there is one thing to say that NASA launched “Mars around Mars,” and another to understand what it really means. After the launch, the probe reached the final speed of 5.5 km per second, in a trajectory of 669 million kilometers to Mars. The orbiter took more than nine months to reach the point where it could begin to enter the orbit of Mars. This is a long time for the navigation of dollars’ worth of one million dollars, flying in space, fast and far. Before starting to see the error that occurred in this case, it only takes a minute for everything to go well.

2-Ethical theories
It is Utilitarianism
the moral value of an action is determined by its result • Utilitarianism is a moral philosophy, which is generally based on the principle that the utility (happiness or satisfaction) of different people can not only be measured, but can also be summarized in a significant about people in society and emphasizes what will provide the greatest benefits to the largest group of people
• The Mars Climate Orbiter was producing a great economic and scientific boost for the community and the Organization.
• NASA would reveal important information about Mars and the atmosphere and climate that surrounds it.
• errors will happen no matter how careful we are.

Analysis of Issues in Ethical Problems
Factual Issues
Involve what is really known about the case. -What are the facts? • The facts of a case are not always clear. A software error One part of the code dealt with Newton, while the other assumed pounds, which resulted in a difference of ~ 90 km in the predicted and actual altitude.
communication with the spacecraft was lost when the spacecraft entered orbital insertion, due to terrestrial computer software that produced an output in non-SI units of pound-strength seconds (l bf · s) instead of the SI units of newton-seconds (N · S) specified in the contract between NASA and Lockheed. The spacecraft found Mars in a trajectory that brought it too close to the planet, causing it to pass through the upper atmosphere and disintegrate.
The discrepancy between the calculated position and the measurement, which resulted in the discrepancy between the desired orbital insertion altitude and the actual altitude, had previously been noticed by at least two navigators, whose concerns were dismissed because “they did not follow the rules to complete the form to document your concerns. ” A meeting of trajectory software engineers, trajectory software operators (navigators), propulsion engineers and managers was convened to consider the possibility of executing the trajectory correction-5 maneuver, which was on the schedule. The attendees of the meeting remember an agreement to carry out the MTC-5, but finally it was not done.

5-Line Drawing
This allows the relative morality of the situation to be qualitatively judged. The company’s initial response was: “there is flaw, we will minimize the magnitude of the problem.”
•? Positive Paradigm –?Results should perform as advertised
•? Negative Paradigm –?The unknown causes and error of Martian nature
1. There is a defect, but it is actually undetectable and will not affect the vehicle’s malfunction.
2. There is a defect, the agency is notified, but no help is provided.
3. The precautionary measure states that different measurements should not be used for the measurement units used in the vehicle
4. Alert notifications are sent to the agency and a meeting is held to address the error
5. Provide warnings in the event of an accident only

With our full root cause analysis, we can now fully address the question of why the Mars Climate Orbiter was lost. As the Cause Map shows, several factors contributed to the loss, the most obvious of which is a unit error in the software used to help predict the speed of the Mars Climate Orbiter, which in turn is used to predict the trajectory of Mars Climate Orbiter would take to enter the Martian environment. This was a simple conversion error: the results were in the strength of the pound and the program that predicted the speed assumed Newton’s, a factor of difference of 4.45. The error in the software resulted in the calculated trajectory being higher than the actual trajectory. Even sophisticated organizations can make simple mistakes. The key, and the goal of the root cause analysis, is to produce possible solutions at multiple points in the chain of causes and effects so that the level of risk is reduced to an acceptable level. Our root because analysis has shown that even if a problem arises and mistakes are made, solutions can be implemented that could detect the error before its consequences become catastrophic.

6-ETHICAL DECISION
According to the previous study, sending the vehicle into space is an ethical issue and aims to improve the scientific and physical condition of NASA. But the accident occurred because of an unintended error of scientists and errors and should have existed instead of the world of a group of scientists to follow the movement of the vehicle
7-Conclusion
Sometimes, the root because analysis is like detective work, working backward from an affected goal through a complex series of causes and effects until problems are discovered and understood. Other times, the chain of causes and effects itself is more important.
Understanding that a sophisticated organization such as NASA managed to lose a multi-million-dollar team by making this type of relatively simple error is really quite easy. It is no secret that the world operates with the metric system, while the United States clings to the imperial system, and the problems can be derived from that fact. Understand how this mistake was made and was not corrected in such a sophisticated organization as NASA; Now there is a complex problem.
Because the Cause Map approach for root cause analysis focuses on solving a problem by unraveling a chain of events leading from a failed goal to its root causes, there is no better tool to understand what happened in a way that allows to implement solutions in multiple levels to ensure that it does not happen again.
8-References
• “Metric mishap caused loss of NASA orbiter”. CNN. September 30, 1999. Retrieved March 21, 2016.
• Panel on Small Spacecraft Technology, National Research Council (1994). Technology for Small Spacecraft. Washington D.C.: National Academy Press. ISBN 0-309-05075-8. Retrieved January 13, 2011.
• Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration, Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications, National Research Council (1995). The Role of Small Missions in Planetary and Lunar Exploration. Washington D.C.: National Academies Press. Retrieved January 13, 2011.
• Stephenson, Arthur G.; LaPiana, Lia S.; Mulville, Daniel R.; Rutledge, Peter J.; Bauer, Frank H.; Folta, David; Dukeman, Greg A.; Sackheim, Robert; Norvig, Peter (November 10, 1999). Mars Climate Orbiter Mishap Investigation Board Phase I Report (PDF). NASA.

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