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Part 1:
Apply three counseling theories in one active case you are handling or one common counseling concern you usually encounter.

Case/Concern: Collective Shift of Religion that causes Depression to some students
Last school year 2016-2017, there was already a rumor in our school that a group of students were starting joining religious activity to other Christian denomination. However, it was very noticeable during last school year 2017-2018 because during my class most of these students were questioning the integrity of the dogma of the church. It was during this time that I intensify my observations to these students why they have such aforementioned shift of behavior where in fact there were no records found relative to such issue. The behaviors that were manifested are as follows;
Declining manifestations of interest in any religious activities and pedagogies offered by school
Due to above mentioned behavior, study habits were affected especially in Christian Living Education.

Continuous insistence of what they perceived from the other sect which is a violation of the school policy.

And it causes confusions and somehow caused DEPRESSION to some students.

After knowing these, I refer the situation to the guidance associate of our school; however, they refer it back to me because the situation calls for a spiritual enhancement which they have sought potential from me.

I coordinated the situation to the concerned coordinators, guidance associates, teachers and to the principal of the school and took plans on how to address the concern.

I called the attention of the concerned students and conduct a group colloquium regarding the issue.

Below are the techniques and procedures I employed:
Counseling Theory Techniques
Cognitive Behavior Therapy
I used this approach to somehow change patterns of thinking or behavior that students were actually confronting, and so change the way they feel and how these processes relate to the way a person behaves, as a way of dealing with emotional and spiritual problems.

An important advantage of cognitive behavioral therapy is that it tends to be short, CBT introduces the concerned group of counselee to a set of principles that they can apply whenever they need to, and that’ll last them a lifetime.

Cognitive Distortion, Grohol, 2016
It is important to reinforce patterns or emotions. The shift of present cognitions to the desired one which is aligning with the right norm. This is what I did. I converted their way of thinking by using mental cognition. I told the concerned students that spirituality and religiosity in the life of a person is very important because first and foremost we are spiritual being that we should ponder upon where we came from and what is the purpose of our existence in this life and fortunately, they agreed to the premise. Another, I told them regarding the dogma being taught by our religion and its basis. I categorically ask them questions of the have defined and understand the existence and subsistence of the religion where they belong and the source or pillars of the faith where they are actually asking for? And they answered no. In this sense, I intend to use another technique that is shown below.

Individual and group Colloquium or the Socratic Dialogue – In this technique, I conducted a group and individual dialogue addressing their concerns and questions about faith and it works. I categorically challenge them to reveal their stand regarding their present faith and expiate their knowledge after sharing their thoughts and seamlessly inject the doctrinal aspect so that they may understand what they are going through and I found it effective.

Filtering – this technique refers to the way many of us can somehow ignore all of the positive and good things in our day to focus solely on the negative. It can be far too easy to dwell on a single negative aspect, even when surrounded by an abundance of good things. In this particular technique, I intensify the importance of having focused to the norms of their present religion and enhance their spirituality by employing morals in life. I started to purify their religious belief and sift those interwoven dogma that causes confusions to their part. I also expound why the church is have such magesterium or teachings and how it came into being. They found the relevance after explaining the importance of tradition of the church where other denominations do not have. And I found it effective because their reactions and feelings conforms already to the idea why the reality of faith is such.

Counseling Theory Techniques
Behavioral Counseling
I intend to use this theory because this theory tries to change someone’s behavior rather than treat the cause of it.

I also specifically employ this because of the observed rapid change of conduct and behavior being a student and besides, it is also manifested in their routine specially their participation in their Christian Living Education course and their performance at large being a student of a catholic institution slowly declined specially to their attendance and other religious institutional activities.

After identifying the problem and determining its cause, an appropriate counseling technique is applied relative to the manifested behavior.

Contingency Contract – Contingency Contracting is a type of intervention that is used to increase desirable behaviors or decrease undesirable ones. A contingency contract may be entered into by a teacher and student, a parent and child, or a therapist and client. It specifies the target behavior, the conditions under which the behavior will occur, and the benefits or consequences that come with meeting or failing to meet the target. 
This particular technique suits to the need of the clients because they gradually changed their behavior and both the client and the counselor identify the problem and set goal on it. Heyward on the other side said that the key component that a contingency contract be effective is to ensure the key elements namely, the task, the reward and the task record. These three is very important because it enshrines the whole pedagogy of the existing counseling technique. In this case, the noticeable absenteeism of the students and the decline of their participation in the area identified above are being addressed. And I found it effective. The questions behind the mind of the clients were dissected and are given direction already.

Shaping – Such changing of behavior and establishing a new behavior can be reinforced, it is also important to note the proponent of behaviorism (B.F. Skinner) that many principles in this world are in common. So to say that to shape human behavior depend on the way the counselor projects target of shaping ones behavior. In the situation given above, The students, after they perceived something from the counselor, and acquire some ideas, the only need here is to consistently shape their behavior into a better one.

Modeling – Modeling is a form of learning where individuals ascertain how to act or perform by observing another individual. It is a method used in certain techniques of psychotherapy whereby the client learns by imitation alone, without any specific verbal direction by the therapist and a general process in which persons serve as models for others, exhibiting the behavior to be imitated by the others. After exhibiting techniques that is align in behaviorism, it is also important to expose the client to individuals exhibiting the target behavior so that he/she can have someone to be modeled to.
Counseling Theory III: REALITY THERAPY
Counseling Theory Techniques
Reality Therapy
This approach focuses on problem solving and making better choices in order to achieve specific goals. It also focused on the here and now rather than the past. The goal of reality therapy is to solve problems, rebuild connections and begin working toward for a better future. The therapist works with the client to figure out what they want and how their current behaviors are bringing them closer (or farther) from their goals.

In this particular technique in reality therapy, I am inviting the client to open wide their horizon to the present context of the situation as well as the reality they are in. Capturing the essence of what we can do to this reality we are in. We both work on the problem and we found it effective. Reality therapy is a highly effective way to solve problems and set and achieve goals. With an emphasis on changing thoughts and actions, reality therapy empowers individuals to improve the present and future. As the patient begins to experience small successes their confidence improves, allowing for more advanced goal-setting and problem-solving. Because reality therapy focuses on problem-solving, it can be effective for a variety of mental health disorders, including addiction and eating disorders. It is particularly useful for at-risk or resistant teens struggling with substance abuse, defiance, manipulation, and other emotional and behavioral issues.

Action taken:
After a series of procedures and pedagogy being employed to the situation mentioned. I suggested activities that could somehow cope – up with their needs and a symposium on relative to faith and sexuality that has been organized by the guidance office and worship intended per class and for each level. We invited speakers for these activities and we found it very effective to the students especially on the counseling techniques being employed.
Analyze the current counseling techniques being used by the guidance counselors of your school. Please answer the following;
What are the common techniques being used by the counselors? Why do you think these are effective? What can be done to improve them?
According to our guidance associates, most of the time they conducted individual counseling and employed listening, paraphrasing and giving open – ended questions. They said that many of our students only need person to hear their side especially to the aspect of family situations because most of them belong to unique family situations. Active Listening plays a vital role in the process of counseling because comprehension of what the counselee is saying is a must without any distraction to achieve good counseling process. Retaining the things which the counselee said is also important so that a counselor can analyze it thoroughly. Responding the counselee also merit in the counseling process because it where interaction happens especially employing or using the technique of PARAPHRASING the words being uttered by the counselee. This is achieved by the helper/counselor repeating back to the client parts of their story. This is sometimes known in counseling ‘speak ‘as the music behind the words.It is like holding up a mirror to the client; repeating what they have said shows the client they have your full attention. It also allows the client to make sure you fully understood them; if not, they can correct you.

To improve the present counseling pedagogy of the school is to employ other technique that has been learned in our studies and practice it thoroughly so that other methodology in counseling be enhanced and utilized.

What counselor’s traits are common on the guidance counselors of your school? What makes them effective counselors?
The common traits that our guidance counselors have are as follows;
They are good listener. All of them have a heart of hearing all concerns of the students especially those who really need utmost care and attention. They find time amidst busy schedule to accommodate their concerns and perhaps, give counsel to them because most of them who summon their selves to the guidance office is in the state of doubt and needs counseling.
They are friendly. The moment you enter the office of our guidance counselors, they will immediately accommodate you with warmth approach and welcoming atmosphere enshrines the office because of their friendliness. And I commend it.

Able to coordinate. Whatever prompting schedules, they can find time to coordinate it with the right authority. One good example is the facilitation of tests and of seminars and symposiums for the students and of the teachers and non-teaching personnel as well. They ensure that these activities are well coordinated with different offices and authorities as well.

Empathic heart – They are able to display empathy – the ability to feel what another person is feeling. They are truly able to imagine what it’s like to stand in someone else’s shoes. It is very visible to them that they have this trait.

Flexibility – All of them can easily adapt and change ways to respond to the needs of their client. They can easily shift approach and techniques on how to deal with the student’s behavior.

What issues in the counseling services in your school can still be improved? List at least 3 issues.

In line with the counseling services in our school, there particular issues that the office must adhere on. Even if I am still in the process of learning, I have sought already that better if we could have professional registered guidance counselor to cope up and even help our students address some issues that pertains to technicalities in counseling services. I intend to mention it because there were times that I feel the urgency of having it. In this sense, we need the urgency to look for a professional help of a guidance counselor to address the needs of the client. Another concern is the intensification of counseling program. There are many students who really need counseling but due to limited time and lack of guidance personnel, not all students are able to meet the guidance counselor for a colloquium or dialogue with them. The last one is a counseling session that aimed in assisting students in identifying and developing skills in handling school pressures (coping with stress). Those were the counseling services in our school that really need to be enhanced or improved.

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