REVIEW ON ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF NOVEL CONVERSION PAPER WASTE FROM DOMESTIC ACCUMULATION
Bagner Decruzz Juilis1, Dalila Damia1, Nurull Eddahanie1
1Faculty of Applied Sciences and Technology (FAST), Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Pagoh Campus, KM 1, Jalan Panchor, 84000 Muar, Johor, Malaysia.
This review paper focuses on the environmental impact of novel conversion paper waste from domestic area. Large amount of papers are being used every day, mostly useless and thrown everywhere which lead to environmental pollution. From the review of previous paper, methods used in recycling paper waste are conversion of waste paper into multifunctional graphene-decorated carbon paper (GDCP) and paper sludge reduction method. The GDCP method is inexpensive and facile method. Waste paper was cut into certain shape and put inside a cubic crucible which contain urea at the upper and lower floors, then heated at 1000oC for 2 hours under nitrogen gas atmosphere to generate black GDCP. Urea was used as an addictive to the carbonization process of the GCCP. Then Pt-loaded GDCP with Pt loading of 0.006 mg cm-2 was dissolved in 10 mL ethanol, leave overnight at 100oC, the treated with N2 gas at 300oC with 5% H2. It shows that the GDCP product produced with a slight shrinkage of 36-50% based on the mass of the input waste paper. The paper sludge reduction method is a process of paper waste disposal minimization via conversion of novel application by just a small fraction amount of paper waste used. It was reported that the variations compressive strength of concrete with different proportions of paper waste at 7 and 28 days shows slight fluctuation with its respective proportions of paper waste, ranging between 30.22 N/mm2 to 35.68 N/mm2 when applied to cement concrete application.
Keyword: Paper waste, Paper recycling, GDCP, Paper sludge
About 90% of paper pulp is made of wood. The productions of paper have been account for about 35% of felled trees, and represents 1.2% of world’s total economic output. Previous research shows that, by recycling one ton of newsprint saves about 1 ton of wood whereas recycling 1 ton of printing or copier paper saves more than 2 tons of wood. The fabrication and designing of waste paper recycling plant is a warm development as it will ensure that the raw material for paper production is increased as well as waste paper could established into wastes are recycled for numerous purposes 1.
In 1690, William Rittenhouse had learned in papermaking and producing paper from recycled materials in United States. America’s first paper mill is on Monoshone Greek near Germantown, now called Philadelphia. Rittenhouse made his paper from discarded rags of linen and cotton 2. In early 1921, the British Waste Paper Association was established in Britain to encourage the reuse of waste paper. After that, recycling was become a major industry in United States and other countries where employing thousands of workers and saving energy, conserving valuable resources and reducing land fill demand 3.
2.0 STATUS OF PAPER RECYCLING
Paper recycling is the most popular among all waste recycling activities. Before it started to attract attention, people have been recycling paper including copy paper, postcards, and envelopes made of recycled pulp 4. All these waste papers are recycled into reusable paper products. Paper recycling is a partially effective waste recycling activities but it does not reduce the environmental burden directly. However, the use of virgin pulp has been increased to produce a low-quality recycled paper product.
2.1 CURRENT STATUS OF RECYCLED PAPER
The term “recycled paper” is not clearly well-defined although it is associated with the reusable paper made of recycled pulp. All paper products can be referred to as recycled paper even if it only includes small amount of recycled pulp. Recycled paper can be used as valuable resources to produce cardboard, magazines, and other low-quality recycled paper products 4. There are variety of cost effective applications that comes from waste papers i.e. production of ceiling boards, bioelectricity production and fuel gas generation 5. An indication of the ratio between recycled pulp and virgin pulp determine the environmental effects of recycled paper products. Thus the failure of indicates the ratio consider violating the Act on Promoting Green Purchasing promoted by the government 4.
2.2 AWARENESS OF RECYCLING AMONG CONSUMERS
Paper recycling gets high awareness among consumers. In Malaysia, paper is the type of waste that has the greatest potential for recycling among other wastes. Furthermore, the amount of paper production using waste paper increased by years i.e. 506 400 tons in 1993 and 564 200 tons in 1994. However, consumers in Malaysia does not actively involved in recycling at present due to lack of policy directions and strategies 6. In comparison, paper recycling is very popular in Japan and these make them the top-ranked user of recycled paper in the world. This is because, Japanese people are practicing the concept of paper recycling and they purchase recycled paper products. Furthermore, the collection and reuse of waste paper are very effective in Japan 4.
2.3 RESPONSES BY THE GOVERNMENT
In the Act concerning the Promotion of Procurement of Eco-Friendly Goods and Services, there is a policy whereby recycled paper should be of 100% recycled pulp and the use of paper containing large percentage of recycled pulp is recommended. This law has been established in February 2001 and has been revised almost every year to promote the procurement of recycled products. Furthermore, this law help the establishment of any society that focus on the reduction of environmental burden and sustainable development. Other than that, there is also law that referred to Act on Promoting Green Purchasing which encourages people on the decision-making and considerations for using a variety of recycled products. In example as the criteria for copy paper include percentage of recycled paper and whiteness level, government is advising consumers to purchase recycled paper products 4. Malaysian government also touches broadly on the policies of the reduction and recycle of waste which adopted from the ABC Plan. This policy has become the backbone document for solid waste management activities at the national level. However, Malaysian government is still looking for more specifics policies on recycling and reuse of waste 6.
This section provides two verifications that consist of two steps: identifying the method of literature study based on previous journal, methods used in selected publications and mapping the content of the selected literature by extracting few information using a set of questions.
3.1 IDENTIFYING LITERATURE
Selected journals were found via Scopus, Science Direct and Google Scholar databases by remarking the search of LCA (life cycle assessment) or LCA (life cycle analysis) AND conversion of waste paper to novel application AND bioethanol production from waste paper AND sludge reduction method. Following the identification of all journals, screening or reviewing other studies has been done based on the similarity approach between the literature collected and other related journals.
3.2 METHODS USED IN SELECTED PUBLICATIONS
There are few publications were reviewed, that shows significant attributes to the novel application. These have been divided into two aspects which is conversion of waste paper into multifunctional graphene-decorated carbon paper (GDCP) 7 and paper sludge reduction method. In paper sludge reduction methods includes the production of biofuel 8, bioethanol from pre- through separate enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation 9, cement concrete 10 and ceiling board application 11.
Looking at first to the conversion of waste paper into graphene-decorated carbon paper (GDCP), Tian et al (2015) has proposed an inexpensive and facile method to reuse paper waste into GDCP 7. Knowing the advantage of waste paper as a raw carbon source for functional carbon nanomaterials, highly extract the properties of GDCP. Generally, waste paper was cut into certain shape and put inside a cubic crucible which contain urea at the upper and lower floors, then heated at 1000oC for 2 hours under nitrogen gas atmosphere to generate black GDCP. Urea was used as an addictive to the carbonization process of the GCCP. Then Pt-loaded GDCP with Pt loading of 0.006 mg cm-2 was dissolved in 10 mL ethanol, leave overnight at 100oC, the treated with N2 gas at 300oC with 5% H2.
Second method proposed about paper waste sludge reduction method. Paper waste sludge reduction is a process of paper waste disposal minimization via conversion of novel application by just a small fraction amount of paper waste used. There are several application has been illustrated by researchers as the main product of sludge reduction method. For an instance, Prema et al have carried out an experiment that illustrates the production of biofuel using waste paper by using Pseudomonas aeruginosa 8. In this term, they used microbial process for conversion of waste paper substrate into synthetic biofuel. Another method used for producing novel application from paper waste was shown by Shruti and Kalburgi (2016). They show that the method of pretreatment, hydrolysis and fermentation for the production of bioethanol 9. Pretreatment method was proposed the usage of 1.5% concentration of H2SO4 at 121 oC and 45 minutes, hydrolysis used bacteria Cytophaga Huchnosonini that convert cellulose to sugars and fermentation process was proposed the usage of fermented reducing sugars from the production of hydrolysis.
Studies from Lodhi et al (2015) shows how relevant paper waste contributes to the manufacture of cement concrete 10. The trend of paper waste for cement concrete application has been widely and active work especially in cementations matrices and landfills. According to Lodhi et al, disposing paper waste has been the major problem in India that results in high cost of disposal and bad environmental surrounding. This alternative has been the known not just decrease amount of dispose paper waste but also exhibit profitable and advancement substitute to landfills through this invention. Same method applied for the production of ceiling boards 11, experimented by Oriyomi and Oluwatobi (2014). Expanded newspaper and paper waste was soaked into hot water for two days to form a slurry. Continuing with usage of hydraulic jack where this paper waste was dewatered and left a day. After that, this paper material was then mix with different ratios of water-cement ratios, poured into specific formwork of fixed dimensions after a day. Then these formworks were removed after a day and cured for 2 weeks for enhance relevant strength.
3.3 MAPPING CONTENT
The content of the selected studies were mapped by extracting information using the following questions.
What is the aim(s)?
What method(s) is used?
What product of method(s) is studied?
Is any supportive data shown? If so, what is the significant?
What environmental impact categories of method studied?
What are the conclusions regarding the conversion method of domestic paper waste into novel application? (Pertaining to the specific case study).
4.1 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1.1 OVERVIEW OF PUBLICATIONS
Few literatures have been selected based on proposed method in previous chapter. A list of 5 publications has demonstrated the ideas of converting into novel application that relevant in common infrastructure such as concrete and so forth. Full description details are given in form of Table 1 that demonstrates the ideas of conversion into biocompatible material for various applications. Based on Table 1, it shows an overview of the content methods of the selected publications.
Author(s) Year Method Used Results
Tian et al 2015 Conversion into Graphene Decorated-Carbon Paper – successfully produced with mass shrinkage 36-50%
– shows superhydrophobic properties at 157.7o
– shows electricity properties
Prema et al 2015 Production of biofuel using waste papers via paper waste sludge reduction – successfully synthesised 1 ton of waste office paper into biomass
Shruti and Kalburgi2016 production of bioethanol from waste newspaper pretreated, hydrolysis and fermentation – maximum percent of bioethanol produced from pure culture organism was 6.849 % v/v while from isolated culture was 6.031 % v/v.
Lodhi et al 2015 application of paper waste in cement concrete example – excellent compressive strength variations at first 7 days to 28 days
– excellent workability properties
Oriyomi and Oluwatobi2014 production of ceiling boards from waste paper – excellent properties of compressive strength, water abrasion etc- resulted that cement paper ratios mix of 1:1 has shown greater compatibility for ceiling board application
Based on mentioned reviewed methods, it shows significant outcome of products for certain applications proposed. For an example, GDCP was successfully produced as shown in Figure 4.1.
Figure 4.1: Pictures (a–e) of the original pieces of waste pap-1er (top) and corresponding as-formed GDCP samples (bottom). Pictures of three pieces of waste A4 paper tailored into different shapes (f) and corresponding GDCP (g–i) after carbonization in the presence of urea.
It shows that the GDCP product produced with a slight shrinkage of 36-50% based on the mass of the input waste paper. GDCP also has a specific surface area of 63.4 m-2g-1 and a pore volume of 0.23 cm3 g-1. In addition, Tien et al also illustrate another application of GDCP such as electrical and superhydrophobic properties. Evidence shows that GDCP shows high conductivity where all GDCP paper exhibited high conductivity in the range of 1-5 S cm-1, showing the LED lights up when wires are connected with GDCP composite. Figure 4.2 shows the brightness of GDCP changed when the shape of GDCP changed, either it was bent or stretched. Other than that, superhydrophobic properties were greatly shown where the product of GDCP-supported Pt nanoparticles lies more than 150o contact angle between the water droplets and the surface of GDCP-supported Pt nanoparticles (1). This somehow utilizes suitable and inexpensive superhydrophobic material that fits various applications such as rain coats and so forth.
Figure 4.2: Superhydrophobic properties of a) normal paper b) GDCP and brightness of GDCP with correlation of c) bend radius d) bend cycles and e) percent of strain
In terms of paper sludge reduction method, several results have been greatly experimented. Taking example of biofuels production, Prema et al has successfully synthesised 1 ton of waste office paper into biomass, then conversion into 280 litres of bioethanol 8. Relation with bioethanol, Shruti and Kalburgi has demonstrated the result from pretreatment, hydrolysis and fermentation method as shown in Figure 4.3. The production percent of bioethanol produced has shown the increase percent of bioethanol production over time in hours. This gave the ideas and verification that these methods used are relevantly contribute to high production of bioethanol from domestic paper and newspaper waste 9. As the evidences reported maximum percent of bioethanol produced from pure culture organism was 6.849 % v/v while from isolated culture was 6.031 % v/v.
Paper sludge reduction also applicable to cement concrete application where Lodhi et al shows the variations of compressive strength, density, water absorption of addition paper waste and workability via slump test for cement concrete application. According to Table 4.1, it was reported that the variations compressive strength of concrete with different proportions of paper waste at 7 and 28 days shows slight fluctuation with its respective proportions of paper waste, ranging between 30.22 N/mm2 to 35.68 N/mm2. It also gave the information via period of time taken as the compressive strength of paper waste shows increase from the first 7 days to 28 days, ideally significant to cement concrete application 10.
Figure 4.3: Percent of bioethanol produced from pure culture organism
and from isolated culture
Table 4.1: The a) variations compressive strength of concrete with different proportions of paper waste at 7 and 28 days b) density c) water absorption and d) slump value
Another result for cement concrete application was about the density of different proportions of paper waste. It was reported that an initial increase of density from 0% to 10% but decreased after further addition of 5% paper waste as shows in Table 4.1. It also concluded that similar trend was applied with the trend data of compressive strength after 28 days curing time. Water absorption data also shows almost maintained results, ranging between 13.34% to 12.93% over increase proportions of paper waste after 28 days. Based on Table 4.1, it was reported that decrease of water absorption of concrete decrease over increase proportions of paper waste. Another reported data was about the workability data via slump test, shown in Table 4.1. It shows that by increase proportions of paper waste, the slump value in unit mm decreased, starting from 80 mm to 70 mm. This has contributed to the 12.5% changes of slump value. Overall the proposed method for cement concrete application was conveniently allowed, most preferable at 10% proportions of paper waste.
The results production of ceiling boards were presented in different aspects. The properties of the ceiling board produced from 3 different mixes as shown in Table 4.2 a). It was observed that different cement paper mix ratios show different properties. Example in compressive strength, 1:1 cement paper ratios shows higher value with 13.50 N/mm2, significant to the contribution of cement as the main material for strengthen aspect. Higher values of paper ratios have resulted to low compressive strength, which defines the properties of paper that led to brittleness. Flanking or abrasion aspects have been resulted to increase value over increase values of density, respective to increase cement paper ratios mix. This information shows that higher values of flanking because of high ratios of paper used in the cement paper ratios mix.
Waster absorption aspects show increasing value over increase number of cement paper ratios mix. Example like 1:2 ratios, it has water absorption about 30.70 % of waster absorption, thus explain the behavior and quantity of paper to absorb water. Hence, pre-treatment of paper process should be done in order to reduce affinity to water. Mechanical properties of the board were reported as the conjunction of long lasting and compatible ceiling board when used in real application. In Table 4.2, it was reported that based on 3 different cement paper ratios mix, the optimum condition for cement paper ratios mix should be 1:1. This gave the evidence where referring to Table 4.2 b) , it was shown that at load reaches 15 N, deflection, modulus of elasticity (MOE) and modulus of rupture (MOR) still reaches some relevant values of 0.31 mm, 0.20 N/mm2 and 0.1 N/mm2 respectively. This explains that compatible and well-balanced cement paper ratios mix gave the best application of ceiling board.
Table 4.2: Variations of cement paper ratios mix with a) different properties of physical and chemical properties and b) mechanical properties
4.3 IMPACT CATEGORIES ON SOCIETY
Above all applications, this has been suited to society directly or indirectly involvement to daily activities. Therefore, the relation of methods used in selected publications has been resulted mostly to the impact category of construction application. Most of the methods mentioned dealing with construction issues. Since purchasing expensive material for building construction has been tremendously incorporate with allocated budget set by contractor, this paper waste was demonstrated and successfully made their way as inexpensive and eco-friendly materials for most of construction concern.
Noticed that recycling is a good approach towards waste reduction, but it was reported that 40% waste are proven to be non-recyclable, plus the maintenance for machinery usage for recycling purposes has been an obvious burden 12. By that, waste materials not just reduce the amount of waste material from domestic accumulation via sludge reduction method but also promote cost-effectiveness of material. Another impact categories towards society is about energy conservation from paper waste. Since the production of biofuel from paper waste was successfully demonstrated by Prema et al, this provides new outcome of fuel usage for various application such as transportation. Regarding of transportation, this mentioned methods will significantly reduce the transportation of waste into landfills for recycling or disposal purposes. Even transportation, Frees et al (2005) only required 0.4-2.0% energy and budget consumption of paper waste processing, this small fraction of energy percent can be omitted into fewer percent 13. This perhaps been covered into few allocated place where most paper waste will be used for production of valuable product. Thus will cut travel expenses and fuel energy of any transport to household or near office. Another impact categories including the reduction of greenhouse effect. Open ended disposal of paper waste via combustion will results to emission of hazardous gas all over the horizons and environment.
Paper waste recycling has been practiced in many countries not only to reduce environmental impact of paper waste from domestic area but to make profit on the application on the product of paper recycling. Noticed that recycled paper can be used as a valuable resource. In this review paper, the methods used in production of paper recycling is the conversion waste paper into multifunctional graphene-decorated carbon paper (GDCP) and paper sludge reduction. The conversion of waste paper into multifunctional GDCP method is inexpensive and facile. The paper sludge reduction method is including the production of biofuel, bioethanol from pre- through separate enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation, cement concrete and ceiling board application.
Other than that, there are variety of cost effective applications that comes from waste papers. Even the paper recycling is a partially effective waste recycling activities, however it does not reduce the environmental burden directly. This explain that the ratio between recycled pulp and virgin pulp is important in determining the environmental effects. Some consumers are not aware or actively involved in recycling is probably due to lack of policy directions and strategies. Government or any society that focus on the reduction of environmental burden should improve the law or their strategies to encourage more consumers in practicing the concept of paper recycling and purchasing recycled paper products. The methods used in conversion of waste paper to novel application should also be improvised so that more amount of dispose paper waste can be decreased and exhibit more profitable and advancement substitute through the invention.
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