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Safe drinking water is a fundamental human right. With the high global demand for water and increasing human pollution, humans are faced with this challenge in producing clean drinking water. The most common sources of water are by surface- and ground-water, but due to high demand and pollution there is a need of an alternate source of drinking water. New technologies are capable of producing safe water but the costs of these alternative water resources are very expensive. The water industry faces an emerging challenge of how to manage the risks of these threats and make necessary investments to ensure the reliability of future supply. In 1974, Congress passed the Safe Drinking Water Act. This law requires EPA to determine the level of contaminants in drinking water at which no adverse health effects are likely to occur. These non-enforceable health goals, based solely on possible health risks and exposure over a lifetime with an adequate margin of safety, are called maximum contaminant level goals (MCLG). Contaminants are any physical, chemical, biological or radiological substances or matter in water.

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