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The exchange or sharing of information among entities which is communication involves a lot of barriers which act in opposition. There are many barriers which impede the communication process in lectures to state but a few .These may include physical, language, semantic and psychological barriers. For these barriers are things which can also minimize their effectiveness in communication.

Physical barriers are the most common type since they are the ones which have major negative influence to effective communication in lectures. Among these include noise, uncomfortable sitting of students, a large lecturer to student ratio, loss in transmission to gadgets used in lecture rooms and faulty electrical equipment, interruption, lecture room temperatures and many others. Noise plays a great role in disturbance and is really an effect to attentiveness .It might be noise of the students, noise from outside the lecture room or even an interruption due to a phone call.

In lectures there should be free space to breath and more of a comfortable environment. The comfortable environment may be interrupted by classroom temperatures and sitting arrangements .Dunhill (1957, page 18) elaborates that one of the least considered but most important factor making harmony in classroom is the sitting arrangements. When students are not well sit, concentration to the lecturer decreases. Poor lighting in lecture rooms and use of backward methods of learning like the use of chalkboards where high technology gadgets can be used is also an important form of communication barrier in a lecture. Engleberg at al (2004, page 197, section 32c) says, “Classroom logistics can vary from run-down classrooms to state-of-the-art high tech learning centre.”This means that much use of technology in learning is good but can also be a great disadvantage to other students. In addition, when lecturer to student ratio is large, there is a greater impediment to communication.

For these physical barriers some measurements can be taken so as to reduce them .Reducing noise and interruptions needs cooperation amongst students and lecturers. Better doable sitting arrangements and a small lecturer to student ratio should be erected. Use of better methods of learning and comfortable lecture room temperature due to conditioners makes the lecture going and also making sure that there are no faulty areas before a lecture can be done, it being electrical, mechanical or other.

Also to include are language barriers. Sofer at al (2005,page 22) proves that there are different students from variety of countries ,races, neighborhoods, cultures, languages and dialect groups ,family structures, religions, education backgrounds and socio -economic levels .Different languages among the students or students and the lecturer consumes progress of a lecture and the barrier is usually minimized by using one and common language.

Moreover, are those barriers which are said to be semantic. People know things differently and manipulate them also in different ways .for example in medicine how shock of the body of a person is defined differently from the shock as defined by engineering department .The barrier may be in form of different vocabulary, faulty translations and unqualified assumptions. Dunhill (1957, page 35) says,” The child learns through his eyes, taste and hands far more than through his ears.”This means that demonstrations and also not depending on same learning style minimize the barrier in a lecture, also facts, opinions, and examples can be offered in support of any claim, as Rosen (1992,page 159 ,section 6c) argues. Clarity of ideas is also important so that a certain thing can be understood better.

Since teaching is much more than getting students to know information as Engleberg (page 209, section 33g) says, psychological barriers are also put into consideration. These involve mental confusions, inattention, individualistic behaviour, emotions, self anxiety and others. These are the barriers which make communication in a lecture incomplete, weak and inactive. These are mostly minimized by the individual who is learning through positive attitude towards the lecture, active listening and bringing all of student emotions and attention to the progress of the lecture.

In a nutshell, as discussed are some of the barriers to communication in lectures and some of the measurements to minimize the barriers but more of the barriers are there also which play vitally in disturbance of the sharing or exchange of information between lecturers and students.

REFERENCES
Dunhill, .J. (1957), Classroom Management, University of London Press, (Warwick Square: London)
Engleberg, .I. Raimes, .A. (2004),Pocket Keys for Speakers,( Houghton Miffin Company, Boston :New York)
Sofer, .Z. Naomi, .I., Raimes, .A.(2005),Instructor’s support package; Keys for writers,(Houghton Miffin Company, Boston: New York)
Rosen, .l., .S.,(1992), The Allyn and Bacon Handbook ,( Allyn Bacon Company)

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