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The relationship of infection to nutritional status is a key determinant of health. The relationship focused on the effect of nutrients on host defenses and the effect of infection on nutritional needs. This has expanded in scope to encompass the role of specific nutrients in the acquired immune function-the modulation of inflammatory processes and virulence of the infectious agent itself. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with increased risk of common cancers, auto-immune diseases, and inflammatory disorder. (DiRosa, Malaguarnera, Nicoletti,, 2009)
The role of micronutrients and faty acids on the response of cells and tissues to hypoxic and toxic damage has been recognized.

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