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The tropical forests formed over 100 million years ago in the zone along the equator. There it is always warm and humid. In short, the most suitable place on earth is to live and reproduce. These forests occupy only 6% of terrestrial land, and they meet in them 80% of all known plant species and almost half of all terrestrial animal species. The density of the forest population is very large. All places are occupied – from the tops of the trees to the forest litter. Trees and lianas form the skeleton of the forest. Epiphytes-flowers, ferns and other plants settle right on the bark of trees and lianas. This is where you can see the real biodiversity. These forests are called “the jewel of the Earth”, “the lungs of the Earth”, the “pharmacy of the world”. Imagine, many animals and plants have not been studied yet.
Many studies and even entire books have investigated the current and future consequences of human activities associated with global warming. A new report from the University of Exeter in the UK and the University of Queensland in Australia took part in an attempt to explain to mankind the difficult situation around the world related to ecology and the need to preserve tropical forests.
In a study published in the Scientific Reports journal this year , it is estimated how much carbon was not released into the atmosphere due to the following efforts that have been made to conserve the vast tropical forests in South America, Africa and Asia. This is the first study that was devoted to the impact of protected forests on reducing carbon dioxide emissions.
The authors of the study were focused on 2000 – 2012 years. The areas they studied make up 20 percent of the world’s tropical forests, which provide habitat for a large number of different species of animals and plants, as well as land with historical sites, such as the ruins of the ancient city of Machu Picchu in Peru.
According to the study, protected national parks and nature reserves, which constitute up to 15 percent of the Earth’s surface, have reduced carbon emissions worldwide by one-third. In other words, if nothing had been done to protect these lands, and the forests instead would have been used only for fuel or agriculture, climate change would have been much faster.
A little reminder of the contribution of carbon in global warming : one carbon atom, connected with two oxygen atoms, turns into carbon dioxide, which leads to a greenhouse effect that raises the average temperature of the entire planet. It is possible that the increase in the greenhouse effect can lead to changes in the Earth’s climate and is thus the main cause of global warming.

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