TOPIC: A case study on the gender portrayals in sports giant NIKE ad: THIS IS US.
FACULTY: INSTITUTE OF GRADUATE STUDIES AND RESEARCH
DEPT: COMMUNICATION AND MEDIA STUDIES
NAME: OBIWENITE C. OKOYE
STUDENT NO: 21712889
COURSE: THEORIES OF COMMUNICATION
COURSE CODE: CMS505
INSTRUCTOR: PROFESSOR DR. BAHAR TASELI
ABSTRACTBroad communications assume a noteworthy part in an advanced world, by communicating data in a quick pace and offering amusement to tremendous groups of onlookers. They comprise press, TV, radio, books and the Internet. The last is presently the most creating medium; nonetheless, TV additionally has a wide field of impact. By making a specific sort of message, media can control individuals’ state of mind and feelings. I might want to center around this issue by exploring plugs structure; I will likewise endeavor to determine sexual orientation generalizations, which are utilized as a part of promoting as an influence strategy.
PURPOSE OF CASE STUDY
•To attempt to find the semiotics in the realm of games through the crusades of an organization from the games business: NIKE.
•To lead a request fundamentally on the sex portrayal inside the Nike as an organization, and particularly, inside Nike’s advertisements, prints, and plugs.
•To perceive how guys and the females spoke to through Nike’s eyes.
•To investigate the conduct of a universal brand, and the impact the brand has on the present society.
The underlying foundations of Nike are on a running track at the University of Oregon, which is the place the two originators met. Bill Bowerman was the Olympic style events mentor there, and amid his residency, Oregon created no less than 33 Olympians. He was so resolved to enable his competitors to exceed expectations that he made shoes for them to deliver his extra time. Phil Knight was one of his sprinters. Together they established Blue Ribbon Sports, the organization that progressed toward becoming Nike. At first they each set up $500 to get some Japanese games shoes which Knight sold at secondary school track occasions out of the back of an auto. Their first significant competitor endorser was Steve Prefontaine, holder of each US record from 2,000 to 10,000 meters.
The Nike name made its presentation in the 1972 Olympic Trials. The organization developed relentlessly to the point when it held a portion of the blasting US running footwear advertise by 1979. In that year Nike presented AIR innovation. It wound up number one in the US sports shoe advertise in 1981. The organization developed quickly as its b-ball business took off and extension occurred in different territories, for example, tennis and baseball, initiated by prominent competitors, for example, John McEnroe.
The mid-1980s were ungainly circumstances. The organization needed to redesign a lot of its framework and neglected to exploit the vigorous exercise blast. Anyway, it developed more grounded and more aggressive. One purpose behind this was Nike’s association with a youthful ball star called Michael Jordan. His first mark shoe, the Air Jordan, was restricted by US ball experts and turned out to be prized to the point that an informal auxiliary market created with costs well above retail. 1987 was a groundbreaking year in which ‘Noticeable Air’ was presented out of the blue, found in a pivotal business set to the Beatles’ melody ‘Insurgency’, which some way or another got the soul of mass excitement for playing sport and being physical. In that year Nike additionally presented the primary Cross-Trainers, multi-utilitarian shoes for individuals with various brandishing interests.
Keeping in mind the end goal to be a genuinely worldwide organization, in any case, Nike perceived that the greater part of whatever is left of the world was enamored with football, a game which wasn’t especially well known in the US. Nike’s initial football items did not have a genuine favorable position, yet as they relentlessly enhanced, upheld by extraordinary competitors and great publicizing, Nike turned into a dynamic significant brand in football. In the UK the organization’s profile was helped by its relationship with football stars, for example, Ian Wright and Eric Cantona. Amid the 1990s UK deals developed by 600% and in 1999 London got its own Nike town a superstore devoted solely to Nike items.
Another vital improvement, mirroring the way that Nike is an athletic brand as opposed to a young brand, was the organization’s venture into golf. Nike started to work with Tiger Woods in 1996 and he won the US Masters by twelve strokes the next year.
Individuals arrange their insight into their general surroundings by arranging and rearranging got data. In this way, they make intellectual plans, which are sure portrayals of the truth showing its most commonplace and major components and properties. These plans are in charge of characterizing the embodiment of our perspective and impact social perception comprehension, expectation, and circumstance and feeling control.
A standout amongst the most imperative kinds of plans utilized for introduction in the social condition is the generalizations, speaking to the assessments among individuals from a specific gathering about alternate gatherings. They are disguised amid the socialization. They can be our very own consequence perceptions or be received from the impact of the noteworthy others, for example, family, companions, instructors, and media. Due to numerous disentanglements and speculations that they create, generalizations introduce deficient, subjective and once in a while a bogus picture of the truth. They are frequently in light of convention and are impervious to change. In spite of the fact that they can both have a positive and negative suggestion, the last is considerably more typical. Regardless of whether certain contentions permit to discredit a generalization, individuals would rather regard it as an exemption that demonstrates the manage, than change the state of mind. Furthermore, social arrangements can prompt the impact of homogeneity of the outside gathering. Elliot Aronson, another American therapist, said that generalizations are utilized to ascribe the indistinguishable highlights to every individual from a specific gathering without taking the current contrasts among the individuals into thought.
Challenges in separating sexual orientation parts in the cutting edge social orders can be an ideal case of the negative social impacts of utilizing generalizations. A division of sexual orientation parts is profoundly established in the social prime examples. Before, the male-controlled society was a prevailing family show. Through the ages men have been thought to be monetary suppliers, vocation engaged, self-assured and autonomous, while ladies have been appeared as low-position specialists, adoring spouses, and moms, in charge of bringing up kids and doing housework. These days a family display is constructed preferably with respect to an association than on man-centric society and ladies have more rights and conceivable outcomes on the work advertise. Women’s activist condition significantly affected the adjustment in this circumstance. Ladies’ freedom development battled for the privileges of ladies and for reclassifying conventional sex parts. They asserted, that there ought to be no refinement between a run of the mill manly and ladylike occupations and that qualities of character ought not to be attributed unequivocally to one sex. In spite of the fact that females and guys are as yet not equivalent, the contrasts between sexual orientation are not all that tremendous any longer. By and by, numerous social foundations, for example, broad communications, still utilize sexual orientation generalizations, basing on the presumption, that they are outstanding to everybody and help the beneficiaries to comprehend the substance of the message. As a result, the reflection of a genuine is deficient and contorted. In spite of the fact that individuals know about the unequal portrayal of certain social gatherings in broad communications, it is difficult to stay goal and unfeeling to its impact.
Advertisements are the tremendous wellspring of sex stereotyping, in light of the fact that they are adjusted to the particular, either male or female target, and are “the impression of the beneficiary”. The point of the cutting edge business isn’t just the fulfillment of requirements yet additionally their creation. Ladies are all the more regularly displayed in ads since they are viewed as in charge of making ordinary buys. Men, for the most part, publicize autos, cigarettes, business items or speculations, though ladies are demonstrated rather in the plugs with beauty care products and residential items. They are adding more probable depicted in the home condition, not at all like men, who are demonstrated outside. Another imperative qualification is the face-ism marvel in the plugs, which comprises in demonstrating the whole figure if there should be an occurrence of ladies and close-up shots in the event of men. The primary strategy brings down the beneficiary’s estimation of the insight of the individual on the photograph. The second one all the more frequently brings out positive affiliations. As indicated by Steve Craig’s exploration, ladies can be displayed in advertisements in a few variations. The first is the most prominent: a housewife fixated by a steam on another tablecloth or a lady whose fundamental issue is an absence of thoughts for supper. Alternate cases are less customary; in any case, they are still exceptionally cliché. One can recognize advertisements with female vamps – hot temptresses, the objects of want of each man. They, for the most part, promote beautifying agents, however, they additionally show up in the advertisements coordinated to men. At the point when a delightful lady acknowledges and applauds the male beautifiers, it is dealt with by men as a certification of its quality. Another write is a lady, whose real concern is to safeguard her magnificence. Subsequently, she introduces a sound way of life, is physically dynamic, and utilization an extensive variety of body and facial beauty care products. Notwithstanding, one can watch chiefly the nearness of thin performing artists in this sort of ads, which can prompt the supposition, that exclusive thin ladies can be excellent and solid. Thus, numerous female collectors fall into the fixation on their weight, which once in a while can have negative impacts.
Male generalizations are additionally different. The main model is “a genuine man”, athletic, effective, proficient, enticer with an excellent lady close by. He additionally has a marked auto and a cell phone. The other sort is less well known and exhibits men committed to their families who can sufficiently spare time for them. Men are once in a while displayed amid housecleaning. What’s more, in the event that they are, it is somewhat a humorous picture e.g. in the Mr. Muscle business or they show up as the specialists and they exhort ladies, for example, how to do clothing appropriately. Publicizing masters likewise utilize the generalization of male companionship, which can be called “pal accounts”; men are introduced as acting together, for example by setting off to a football coordinate or to the bar. They share similar interests and assessments, and they appreciate hobnobbing by accomplishing something amazingly fascinating and daring. An ever increasing number of ads are coordinated to youngsters. They designate “the correct place” in the general public for young ladies and young men. Young ladies are appeared as sitters nursing dolls or cleaning house with a pink cleaning pack, though young men do games or play PC recreations (in the same place). On the off chance that people show up in the advertisements together, they are mostly displayed as a couple or marriage. A sexual subtext is likewise regularly utilized as a part of this case, regardless of whether the publicized item has nothing in a similar manner as the suggestive circle. In the circumstance of rivalry, ladies seem, by all accounts, to be weaker than men.
Breaking gender stereotypes
Regardless of the huge nearness of the generalizations in ads, publicizing pros more regularly utilize non-schematic thoughts of the advancement of items and administrations. Ladies are introduced as freed, solid and autonomous of social desires and men are appeared while washing or cleaning. The most famous this contextual investigation’s primary concentration point is the Nike: THIS IS US advertisement battle made three movies for various target showcase that will take off all inclusive, each difficult sex generalizations in a style custom fitted to that specific market. Other comparative cases are: non-cliché business is Dove battle went for ladies at each age and with various types of figures. It underlines normal magnificence rather than culminate shapes. The female watchers like to watch ladies, with whom they can distinguish, along these lines the crusade turned out to be an incredible achievement. Male parts in publicizing are re-imagined too, British business of a chemical called Ajax presents great looking men cleaning the kitchen with this item; in the other case a man is striping for his better half and afterward tosses his garments in the clothes washer called Ariston. This circumstance is inverse to the customary plan, in which a young lady is an enchantress and a man is a watcher.
Delicacy, non-abrasiveness. Are delineated as a housewife or a low-status specialist, an agreeable lady, dealing with the house making. Ladies in the world of the game: latent, non-athletic, even with an unadulterated enlivening part. New portrayals of ladies in the media are demonstrating them feisty, effective.
The power that exists in us, the normal individuals: I am not a star. I would prefer not to be a star. The Nike man: solid, eager, extreme. The most essential thing is endeavoring to seek after its objectives, is achieving its cutoff points, going the extent that he can go, and afterward going more remote, conquering its apprehensions: It’s not tied in with winning or losing; I don’t gather titles, I gather hours. Hours of diligent work. Hours of torment. His inspiration discourse, his life mission: This is a lifestyle; I would prefer not to be a hotshot, I need to be superior to that. I simply need to be me. The city us our character’s work out place. The issue of race: His battle to be better is significantly more critical since he seems to originate from a poor foundation, he lives in the edges of New York, works out in the city.
NIKE WOMEN-Better for It-Inner thoughts
Women seem delicate, uninvolved and docile. They touch base at the rec center brimming with self-question; they are subliminal about their body and about their quality: Why are there such a significant number of mirrors? They see the other lady working out as opponents: They look so non-judgmental. I don’t assume that. Utilize mockery to shroud their frailties: Oh great, a cluster of models directly before me. They discover pardons for them not investing more energy and consider surrendering, which influences them to seem feeble (physically and inwardly): Don’t worry about me here with my child weights, infant’s arms. Something changes. They don’t abandon attempting and acknowledge they do have quality in them: I got this. Women in the realm of games begin to be portrayed as dynamic, athletic, and certainly not having only an improving part.
Men vs. Women Challenge
A web-based running challenge on Nike’s website page amongst people. Everybody can without much of a stretch enlist with Nike’s application, get their shoes and join the test. Seeing that men are ahead of the pack, ladies get spurred and begin running harder. There are Go Women, go and Go, Men, go advertisements in the whole city as all the youngsters are pushing their points of confinement and running as quick as possible. The advertisements made by Nike are constantly unique and send extremely solid and capable messages. The stunning state of mind and vision of the organization is the thing that should matter in the realm of games. Individuals are being informed that it doesn’t make a difference what you do or what you look like, what makes a difference most is making a decent attempt, pushing your cutoff points. The ladies in the Nike promotion work harder and acknowledge they can be capable: I got this. Womanliness begins to be related to solid and sure ladies: I did it! The advertisement does not center around who won: It’s not tied in with winning or losing. It is tied in with achieving your breaking points. Going the extent that you can go. And afterward going more remote: pushing one’s cutoff. Nike’s main goal and qualities are clear: they advance respectability and diligent work. What’s more, the sportsmen and sportswomen at Nike are simply astonishing, dedicated people.
For what reason did Nike conjure gendered rivalry to draw its underlying crowd? The 2009 crusade addresses flexible Euro-American developments of sex as comprising of two discrete and heteronormative classifications, without a moment’s delay contradicted and brought together, and of all sexual orientation relations as a natural organic and mental fight for strength. Thorne, in her investigation of American youngsters’ associations on school play areas, watches that “well disposed” focused structures are frequently utilized to by implication address certain basic strains. “Children utilize the edge of play (‘we’re just playing’; ‘it’s all enjoyment’) as a pretense for frequently genuine, sex-related messages about sexuality and animosity,” she clarifies. This “cordial” rivalry addresses social substances established in day to day life, where conceptual thoughts of manliness and gentility are persistently sanctioned through coded practices.
Essentially, in Nike’s advertisement crusade, the test is continually framed regarding play. Nike’s TV advertisement, for instance, highlights people happily endeavoring to back each other off through infantile tricks taking glasses, stumbling each other, and so forth. As the more genuine and aggressive ramifications of the print promotions show, be that as it may, (take note of the serious outward appearances, the devoted hand signals, and so on.) fundamental this benevolent system is a story of the genuine fight for predominance. The “Men versus Ladies Challenge” calls for youthful sprinters to demonstrate not only their own particular legitimacy but rather that of their whole sexual orientation. All of a sudden, the prevalently flowed and sought to the thought of manliness framed in ideas of athletic predominance and focused hostility is being referred to. What are men they if given the ladies a chance to beat them unexpectedly? All of a sudden, ladies’ affirmations of sexual orientation fairness are being referred to they need to demonstrate that they are superior to the men, first at running, and after that in the general population circle, at the same time keeping up sexed female characteristics. A race amongst people turns into a roundabout exchange concerning physical and social power and also the transaction of gendered practices. Joined, these promotions mirror the high stakes of sexual orientation legislative issues.
Metamessages of Ad Copy
The unequivocal message of the advertisement arrangement is to a great extent passed on through content. The content is huge, white, and unmistakably put against dull foundations. In spite of the fact that there isn’t a reasonable arrangement for the blurbs, the promotion highlighting the man and lady together appears a summing up of the substance of the other three, since its talk isn’t intrinsically actuating. It sets a basic twofold amongst “men” and “ladies,” which Nike, as most organizations and offices, thinks to be best in pulling in a wide pool of purchasers. “Challenge” is set off without anyone else spatially trying to accentuate the aggressive sense that Nike wishes to impart in watchers a drive that will convey them to the Nike Plus site to buy exceptional shoes expected to rival. The underlying starting up of watchers, be that as it may, is left generally to the next three advertisements.
The advertisements including the single lady and the single man are reliant: it takes two for a legitimate rivalry. Be that as it may, without one promotion close to the next, it’s anything but difficult to bounce to sexist conclusions recommended by the content. The men’s motto, “One all the more thing for men to lead,” is compared with the ladies’ trademark, “Women first. Men second.” By outline, both ought to be similarly exciting and enabling, in the event that we miss or ignore the implications of “women first.” This expression references both the period of gallantry in which the perfect masculine attitude decided the considerate treatment of ladies, and it’s cutting edge adjustment that can either be utilized insultingly or keep up unequal sexual orientation desires. Voicing the more often than not inferred “men second” after the expression isn’t sufficient to counterbalance the way that men formed it for their own eminence. “Women first” conveys with it an unmistakable belittling tone. On the other hand, “One all the more thing for men to lead” guides straightforwardly toward men’s successive strength past the similarly paltry Nike challenge within reach.
The shoe-including advertisement bolsters the thought that ladies require help to be “first.” Its trademark, “Custom fit for young ladies. Inconvenience for folks” suggests that exclusive with unique gear would women be able to plan to effectively challenge men. This Nike-empowered fairness doesn’t encourage poise between the genders, nonetheless, it signifies “inconvenience for folks,” proposing that something else, men feel normal in their prevailing social/social positions. The finish of the subtext additionally shows a twofold message: “Give the folks a comment” both repeats that ladies do not merit going up against unless they have the hardware to up their execution and implies that a lady can turn out to be more alluring socially/sexually to men by gaining this specific shoe. In any case, the promotion looks to reinforce ladies’ certainty by unpretentiously undermining it to start with, in this way setting up the need to purchase Nike shoes.
The depiction of male and female sprinters in Nike’s battle merges every one of the complexities implanted in the dialect and systems of the promotion ideas of aggressiveness, sex division, sexualization, control, and so forth in visual shape. Essentially to its literary partner, the depiction of bodies appears to start in the individual advertisements and comes full circle in the promotion including both male and female sprinters. All things considered, the “language structure” of the pictures contrasts as per the target group, offering, in one casing, a decided and light-footed female competitor, in the following, a lady sought after. Similarly as the procedure and dialect of the crusade offer two levels of translation (play versus fight, “libertarian” versus sexist), the depiction of bodies fits numerous implications also. These implications, however smoothly artificially glamorized over, are vital to reveal on the grounds that they uncover “the manners by which we think people carry on,” and offer to the watcher some type of “fanciful bliss”, a longing advantageously commodified in shoe frame all in a matter of moments. It is essential to examine, at that point, what precisely Nike plans to convey outwardly before the peruser turns the page.
In the promotions highlighting solo competitors, both man and lady give off an impression of being committed, dynamic operators. At first look, their situating is genuinely equivalent both gaze eagerly at their objective, arms in movement effectively occupied with the race. Upon more nitty-gritty investigation, be that as it may, unobtrusive contrasts can be watched the man offers the picture taker a durable thumbs-up, while the lady’s hand, however, drew in, is put daintily finished her hip. While these distinctions positively recommend a chain of the importance of contrast, it is a pecking order darkened by the ads’ content. Generally, at that point, these two pictures appear to be expected to, generally, remain on rising to balance. This is likely because of the promotions’ target group, as everyone expects to propel its separate sexual orientation to partake in the opposition.
The promotions including both male and female competitor, then again, are significantly more hazardous and uncover the issues of a fight, mastery, and sexualization hidden the content and methodology. The sprinters’ bodies are situated in a sensually charged way, hips relatively touching. The man dismisses totally from the camera, gazing obviously at his opposition. The watcher is left to decide the significance of this look. Is it true that he is playing with her? Egging her on? Seeking after her against her desires? A few physical pointers appear to infer the presence of a forceful and sexual supporting. The lady’s outward appearance, for instance, however like her individual photograph, has changed. Her lips have drawn down, as though stressed, while before her face was smooth and loose. Moreover, she doesn’t restore the man’s look and does not appear to make the most of his interest. These markers are confounded further by the man’s plain strength. He is highlighted at the focal point of the promotion, both before and taller than the lady’s body. His correct hand is contracted unequivocally as though getting a handle on an imperceptible question a signal conjuring quality – while his left still offers a lively thumbs-up. The lady’s fingers, be that as it may, have twisted inwards, giving her a far less agentive look.
Getting it right – Body form and Nike India
In April 2016, Body frame discharged its “Blood” promotion, highlighting ladies occupied with extraordinary games. Blood is the key visual subject, and there’s a ton of it! The crusade accumulated a considerable measure of acclaim, with numerous ladies hailing it as a “distinct advantage”. A glance at the theme perception on Pulsar TRAC around the battle uncovers that the promotion evoked a high level of passionate reverberation, with words like “the creeps” coming up much of the time. This response gives an empowering look at how addressing ladies in the way that impacts them truly pays off. Going for broke paid profits for Body shape, halfway due to the spearheading actuality that the advertisement was among the principal sterile item plugs in the UK to include blood, instead of clinical blue fluid. This was in charge of a ton of its online festival. Nike India’s 2016 ‘Da Ding’ promotion likewise offered an intense depiction of capable ladies that resounded with women’s activist gatherings of people, summoning the ‘solid not thin’ pattern that has overwhelmed ladies’ wellness battles as of late. This spot felt considerably all the more striking inside the Indian market, whose sexual orientation imbalance is frequently revealed in the news.
Drawing on a built-up fruitful equation for sports advertisements, this video didn’t go for broke and keeping in mind that for this situation the brand’s intended interest group is solely comprised of ladies, it additionally figured out how to engage a crossing point of ladies. It works, until further notice. With regards to brands whose groups of onlookers are not sexual orientation, in particular, does the formula for progress contrast? Maybe the way to effectively associating with the gathering of people is looking past doubles. While utilizing sexual orientation as a beginning stage for statistic focusing on may seem unavoidable, it may not generally be the best method for fragmenting the gathering of people. Nike’s promotion THIS IS US has the striking slogan and is comprised of a progression of advertisements commending decent variety. The most recent spot highlights Trans and non-paired gathering goers, while a past business centers around a Swedish-Iranian craftsman Nadia Tehran. Individuals of various sexual orientations, ages and ethnicities are available in the two promotions, with the urban underground music scene filling in as a scenery.
Advertisements are the capable instrument utilized for making and forming individuals’ assessments. Their structure is streamlined keeping in mind the end goal to be comprehended by mass collectors. Ad message contains prevailing and surely understood attributes of the truth. Subsequently, generalizations are regularly utilized as a part of the advertisements as a standout amongst the most prominent strategies of influence. Nonetheless, they portray particular gatherings in connection to the entire paying little mind to singular contrasts. The principle point of broad communications is to be all inclusive and reasonable for everybody, keeping in mind the end goal to assemble the biggest conceivable group of onlookers. In this manner TV, in charge of giving the focal social talk, should be “a reflection of the general public”. In any case, in light of a cliché method for clarifying the truth, a few gatherings are underrepresented or overlooked, and in this way the general public picture is fragmented. For example, the manner by which male and female parts are exhibited in ads mirrors the conventional ideas of sex, where ladies are overwhelmed by men. Despite the fact that individuals know about the perils postured by speculation, they have a tendency to be conformists and would preferably submit to the predominant examples than contradict them and hazard a negative gathering of such conduct from the others. The media will keep on bombarding individuals with energizing or stale ads highlighting advanced or unmitigatedly credulous sexual orientation generalizations. The mission for sex value in publicizing, as anyplace else, requires another enlivening that instigates basic reasoning aptitudes and the capacity to settle on an individual decision in accordance with our confidence. Sponsors will keep on making, what numerous would think about unfriendly, utilization of sexual orientation as a method for showcasing products and enterprises. The quest for sexual orientation correspondence is indistinguishable from the fight against consumerism which can be won through, in addition to other things, a devotion to making bona fide individuals, connections, and demeanors in publicizing. This may appear to be an aspiring assignment however it is achievable if just we center around what and our identity as opposed to on what other individuals need us to be.
1. Allan, K. and Coltrane, S. (1996) “Gender displaying television commercials: A comparative study of television commercials in the 1950s and 1980s”, Sex Roles, 34. 185-203.
2. Alvesson, M. and Billing, Y.D. (1997) Understanding Gender and Organizations, Sage,
Thousand Oaks: CA.
3. Bartsch, R., Burnett, T., Diller, T., & Rankin-Williams, E. (2000) “Gender representation in television commercials: updating an update”, Sex Roles, 43 (9/10), 753-785.
4. Beck, U. (2002) “The Cosmopolitan society and its enemies”, Theory, Culture and Society, 19 (1/2), 17-44.
5. Burton, D. (1995) “Women and Financial Services: Some Directions for Future Research.” International Journal of Bank Marketing, 13 (8): 21-28.
6. Chandler, D. “Television and Gender Roles” http://www.aber.ac.uk/media/Modules/TF33120/gendertv.htmlhttp://www.aber.ac.uk/media/Modules/TF33120/gendertv
7. Darley, W. and Smith R. (1995) “Gender differences in information processing strategies: An empirical test of the selectivity model in advertising response”, Journal Advertising, 14 (1), 41-56.
8. Furnham, A. and Thomson, L. (1999) “Gender role stereotyping in advertisements on two British radio stations”, Personality and Individual Differences, 5, 941-959.
9. Goffman, E. (1976) Gender Advertisements, New York: Harper & Row.
10. Jones, G. (1991) “Gender differences in precompetition temporal patterning, JSEP.
11. Marketing (1998) “DM Failures Linked to Gender Differences.” Marketing (April 9): 4.
12. Pinkerton, J. (1995) “New Marketing Tactics to Woo Women to Computers/” Dealerscope Merchandising 37.
13. Rickard, L. (1995) “Subaru, GMC to Push to Win Over Women.” Advertising Age 6 (April 3): S24.