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VITAMINS
The term vitamin is derived from the words vital and amine, because vitamins are required for life and were originally thought to be amines. Although not all vitamins are amines, they are organic compounds required by humans in small amounts from the diet.
TYPES:
Water-soluble vitamins: these can’t be stored in your body and need to be replaced regularly from your diet.

Fat-soluble: these can be stored in your body but should still be part of a healthy diet.

Water soluble vitamins fat-soluble vitamins
Folate vitamin A
Vitamin C Vitamin D
Thiamine Vitamin E
Riboflavin Vitamin K
Niacin Pantothenic Acid and Biotin Vitamin B6 Vitamin B12 fat-soluble vitamins
vitamin A
The vitamin A is in the form of retinoic acid, retinal and retinol. Retinol can be converted by the body to retinal, which can be in turn be oxidized to retinoic acid.
Functions:
Vitamin A plays a vital role in bone growth, reproduction and immune system health. It also helps the skin and mucous membranes repel bacteria and viruses more effectively. It is essential to healthy vision.

Sources:
The richest animal source of retinols is beef liver. Fruits and vegetables, including carrots, spinach, kale, butternut squash, cantaloupe, mangoes, pumpkins and sweet potatoes, poultry.

Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA):
The recommended dietary allowances for vitamin C were recently revised upwards, to 90 mg/day for men and 75 mg/day for women based on pharmacokinetic data.

Benefits:
Protects Eye Health
Supports Immunity
Relieves Inflammation
Toxicity:
The condition caused by vitamin A toxicity is called hypervitaminosis A. symptoms include nausea, headache, and fatigue, loss of appetite, dizziness, dry skin. Signs of chronic toxicity include dry itchy skin, weight loss, headache, enlarged spleen, anemia, and bone and joint pain.
Disease:
Deficiency:
Vitamin A deficiency usually results from inadequate intakes of vitamin A. Other individuals at risk of vitamin A deficiency are those with poor absorption of lipids due to impaired pancreatic or biliary secretion and those with inflammatory bowel diseases, such as Crohn’s disease and celiac disease.
VITAMIN D:
it can be obtained from dietary sources or supplements, vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) is synthesized in the human skin from 7-dehydrocholesterol upon exposure to ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation from sunlight. Vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) is a vitamin D analog photosynthesized.

Functions:
The function of vitamin D that is most clearly understood is its role in calcium metabolism.
Sources:
Solar ultraviolet-B radiation stimulates the production of vitamin D3 in the epidermis of the skin. Vitamin D is found naturally in only a few foods, such as some fatty fish, fish liver oils, and egg.

Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA):
Recommendations from the US Institute of Medicine suggest that an average daily intake of 400–800 IU, or 10–20 micrograms, is adequate for 97.5% of individuals.Blood levels above 20 ng/ml or 30 ng/ml are considered as “sufficient.”
Benefits:
Help Protect Against Heart Disease and Stroke
Reduce the Risk for Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes
Provide Relief for Symptoms of Autoimmune Conditions
Toxicity:
The reason is that excessive sunlight exposure generates a number of biologically inert photoproducts from 7-dehydrocholesterol and cholecalciferol. Vitamin D toxicity induces abnormally high serum calcium concentration which could result in bone loss, kidney stones, and calcification of organs like the heart and kidneys.

Disease:
In vitamin D deficiency, calcium absorption cannot be increased enough to satisfy the body’s calcium needs. The common diseases are:
Rickets
Osteomalacia
Muscle weakness and pain.

Vitamin E:
The term vitamin E describes a family of eight fat-soluble molecules with antioxidant activities: four tocopherol isoforms (?-, ?-, ?-, and ?-tocopherol) and four tocotrienol isoforms (?-, ?-, ?-, and ?-tocotrienol) .Only one form, ?-tocopherol, meets human vitamin E requirements.

Functions:
The main function of vitamin E in humans appears to be that of an antioxidant, it is also known to inhibit the activity of the important cell-signaling molecule ‘protein kinase C.

Sources:
Major sources of ?-tocopherol in diet include vegetable oils, nuts, whole grains, and green leafy vegetables.
Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA):
RDA values for vitamin E vary by age but not by gender. Children ages 1 to 3 should get 6 milligrams, or 9 international units, of vitamin E per day, children ages 4 to 8 should get 7 milligrams, or 10.4 international units, per day and children ages 9 to 13 should get 11 milligrams, or 16.4 international units, per day. Adolescents and adults ages 14 and over should get 15 milligrams, or 22.4 international units, of vitamin E per day.
Benefits:
Vitamin E has positive anti-inflammatory effects, and it plays a role in immune enhancement and the prevention of platelet aggregation. It may help prevent or delay coronary heart disease.

Toxicity:
Few side effects have been noted in adults taking supplements of less than 2,000 mg of ?-tocopherol daily. The most worrisome possibility is that of impaired blood clotting, which increases the likelihood of hemorrhage in some individuals.
Disease:
Deficiency:
Severe vitamin E deficiency has been associated with specific genetic defects affecting the transport of ?-tocopherol by ?-tocopherol transfer protein (?-TTP) and lipoproteins. Severe vitamin E deficiency results mainly in neurologic symptoms, including impaired balance and coordination, injury to the sensory, muscle weakness and damage to the retina of the eye.

Vitamin k:
Vitamin K1 or phylloquinone is synthesized by plants and is the predominant form in the diet. Vitamin K2 includes a range of vitamin K forms collectively referred to as menaquinones. Most menaquinones are synthesized by human intestinal microbiota and found in fermented foods and in animal products.

Function:
Vitamin K is a compound that helps several proteins in your blood to coagulate. The activation of seven vitamin K-dependent clotting factors depends on their binding to calcium ions in your blood. Vitamin K plays a role, along with calcium, in building bone.

Sources:
Sources include beef liver, green tea, broccoli, turnip greens, kale, cabbage and asparagus.

Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA):
Men over 19 years old need 120 micrograms of vitamin K daily. Non-pregnant, pregnant and nursing women 19 years old and over need 90 micrograms of vitamin K each day. The National Institutes of Health’s Food and Nutrition Board recommends that teenagers of both sexes from ages 14 to 18 should have 75 micrograms of vitamin K daily, and that children from 1 to 13 years old require between 30 to 60 micrograms each day. The recommended daily allowance for infants is between 2 and 2.5 micrograms.

Benefits:
Vitamin K plays a crucial role in blood coagulation and in the growth, development and maintenance of strong bones. It triggers the action of enzymes and is an important component of proteins responsible for regulating cell growth, reproduction and death.

Toxicity:
There is no known toxicity associated with high doses of the vitamin k. Menadione can interfere with the function of glutathione, resulting in oxidative damage to cell membranes.
Disease
Deficiency:
Overt vitamin K deficiency results in impaired blood clotting. Symptoms include easy bruising and bleeding that may be manifested as nosebleeds, bleeding gums, blood in the urine, blood in the stool, tarry black stools, or extremely heavy menstrual bleeding.
Water soluble vitamins:
Vitamin B6:
The term vitamin B6 refers to six common forms, namely pyridoxal, pyridoxine (pyridoxol), pyridoxamine, and their phosphorylated forms.

Function:
Vitamin B6 helps to convert food into energy. It helps the body produce various neurotransmitters. It also helps maintain the normal levels of an amino acid, homocysteine. Performs in processes like gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis.

Sources:
Vitamin B6 is present as pyridoxine in plant foods and as pyridoxal or pyridoxamine in animal sources.Milk, Banana, avocado, poultry, fish, beef liver, organ meats, whole grains, legumes, brown rice, corn, potatoes.

Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA):
Infants ages 7 to 12 months require 0.3 milligrams, while newborns up to 6 months require 0.1 milligrams.The RDA of B-6 is 0.5 milligrams for children ages 1 to 3, 0.6 milligrams for ages 4 to 8 and 1 milligram for ages 9 to 13. The RDA is 1.3 milligrams for males ages 14 to 50 and females ages 19 to 50. Teenage girls ages 14 to 18 require 1.2 milligrams of B-6 daily. Males over ages 50 require 1.7 milligrams, while females of the same age require 1.5 milligrams.

Benefits:
Detoxifies the Liver
Enhances the Health of Blood Vessels
Good for the Eyes
•Toxicity:
Long-term supplementation with very high doses of pyridoxine may result in painful neurological symptoms known as sensory neuropathy. Symptoms include pain and numbness of the extremities and in severe cases, difficulty walking.
Disease
Deficiency:
Alcoholics are thought to be most at risk of vitamin B6 deficiency due to low dietary intakes and impaired metabolism of the vitamin. Other neurologic symptoms observed in severe vitamin B6 deficiency include irritability, depression, and confusion.

Vitamin B12:
Vitamin B12 has the largest and most complex chemical structure of all the vitamins. It is unique among vitamins in that it contains a metal ion, cobalt.
Function:
Cyanocobalamine plays a major role in the formation and maturation of red blood cells (RBCs). It is important for the synthesis of DNA, RNA and provides support to the body’s neurological functions. It is required for folic acid absorption and helps release energy for cell functioning. Vitamin B12 is also required for the formation of proteins and lipids.

Sources:
Meat, sea food, and egg, Milk and milk products. Plant foods do not contain vitamin B12.
Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA):
The Institute of Medicine’s Food and Nutrition Board recommends that healthy adult men and women over 19 years old consume 2.4 micrograms of vitamin B-12 each day. Pregnant women need 2.6 micrograms daily and women who are breastfeeding need 2.8 micrograms daily. However, due to absorption rate decreasing with age, people over age 50 may need as much as 500 to 1,000 micrograms of supplemental vitamin B-12 each day.

Benefits:
Helps With Red Blood Cell Formation and Anemia Prevention
Support Bone Health and Prevent Osteoporosis
Improve Mood and Symptoms of Depression
Toxicity:
No toxic or adverse effects have been associated with large intakes of vitamin B12 from food or supplements in healthy people. When high doses of vitamin B12 are given orally, only a small percentage can be absorbed, which may explain the low toxicity.

Disease
Deficiency:
In elderly individuals, vitamin B12 deficiency is more common mainly because of impaired intestinal absorption. Pernicious anemia and atrophic gastritis are common diseases.

Vitamin c:
Vitamin C, also known as L-ascorbic acid. Humans, unlike most animals, are unable to synthesize vitamin C endogenously, so it is an essential dietary component.

Function:
Two major functions of vitamin C are as an antioxidant and as an enzyme cofactor. Even in small amounts vitamin C can protect indispensable molecules in the body, such as proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids, from damage by free radicals and reactive oxygen species.

Sources:
Strawberries, Citrus Fruits, Papayas, Kiwi, Guava, Melons, Tomatoes, Cauliflower
Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA):
RDA is 40mg. While an orange contains 46mg of the vitamin, a tomato does pretty well at 30mg, and a red pepper will give you a whopping 240mg.

Benefits:
Increase your body’s absorption of iron from plant-based foods.

Protect you from infections by keeping your immune system healthy.

Important for growth and repair of bones, teeth, skin and other tissues.

•Toxicity:
A number of possible problems with very large doses of vitamin C have been suggested, including genetic mutations, birth defects, cancer, atherosclerosis, kidney stones, increased oxidative stress, excess iron absorption, vitamin B12 deficiency, and erosion of dental enamel.

•Disease
Deficiency:
Severe vitamin C deficiency has been known for many centuries as the potentially fatal disease, scurvy Symptoms of scurvy include subcutaneous bleeding, poor wound closure, and bruising easily, hair and tooth loss, and joint pain and swelling.

Folate:
It known as vitamin B9 or folacin. Naturally occurring folates exist in many chemical forms; folates are found in food, as well as in metabolically active forms in the human body.

•Function:
Red Blood Cell Production
Nervous System Development
Amino Acid Metabolism
Sources:
Green leafy vegetables are rich sources of folate and provide the basis for its name. Citrus fruit juices, legumes, and fortified foods are also excellent sources of folate.

Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA):
Age/Gender Group Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)
Infants and Children (0-13 years) 65-300
Teenagers (14-18 years) 400
Adults (19 years+) 400
Benefits:
normal blood formation;
normal metabolism of the immune system;
the reduction of tiredness and fatigue
Toxicity:
Large doses of folic acid given to an individual with an undiagnosed vitamin B12 deficiency could correct megaloblastic anemia leaving the individual at risk of developing irreversible neurologic damage. Such cases of neurologic progression in vitamin B12 deficiency have been mostly seen at folic acid doses of 5,000 ?g (5 mg) and above.

Disease
Deficiency:
Chronic and heavy alcohol consumption is associated with diminished absorption of folate, which can lead to folate deficiency. Smoking is also associated with low folate status.

Thiamine:
Thiamin is also known as vitamin B1 or aneurine. Thiamin occurs in the human body as free thiamin and as various phosphorylated forms: thiamin monophosphate (TMP), thiamin triphosphate (TTP), and thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP).

Function:
Thiamin (vitamin B1) helps the body’s cells change carbohydrates into energy. Thiamin also plays a role in muscle contraction and conduction of nerve signals.

Sources:
Food sources of thiamine include beef, liver, dried milk, nuts, oats, oranges, pork, eggs, seeds, legumes, peas and yeast, rice, pasta, breads, cereals and flour.

Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA):
The daily recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) of thiamine are: Infants 0-6 months, 0.2 mg; infants 7-12 months, 0.3 mg; children 1-3 years, 0.5 mg; children 4-8 years, 0.6 mg; boys 9-13 years, 0.9 mg; men 14 years and older, 1.2 mg; girls 9-13 years, 0.9 mg; women 14-18 years, 1 mg; women over 18 years.

Benefits:
Vitamin B1, or thiamin, helps prevent complications in the nervous system, brain, muscles, heart, stomach, and intestines. It is also involved in the flow of electrolytes into and out of muscle and nerve cells.

Toxicity:
A small number of life-threatening anaphylactic reactions have been observed with large intravenous doses of thiamin.
Disease
Deficiency:
Beriberi, the disease resulting from severe thiamin deficiency. Thiamin deficiency affects the cardiovascular, nervous, muscular, gastrointestinal, and central and peripheral nervous systems. Beriberi has been subdivided into dry, wet, cerebral, or gastrointestinal.

Riboflavin:
It is also known as vitamin B2. In the body, riboflavin is primarily found as an integral component of the coenzymes, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and flavin mononucleotide (FMN).

Function:
Maintaining a healthy liver
Keeping the eyes, nerves, muscles and skin healthy
Hormone production by the adrenal glands
•Sources:
Fish, meat, and poultry, turkey, chicken, beef, kidneys, liver, Dairy products, Avocados, cereals, peas, Mushrooms, Nuts, Pumpkins, Sweet potatoes, spinach, Whole-grain breads.

•Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA):
The recommended daily allowance (RDA) of vitamin B2 in for men aged 19 years and over is 1.3 milligrams per day, and for women, it is 1.1 milligram per day.
Benefits:
It helps the body break down carbohydrates, proteins and fats to produce energy, and it allows oxygen to be used by the body. It is also used for the development and function of the skin.

Toxicity:
Riboflavin may increase the risk of DNA strand breaks in the presence of chromium (VI), a known carcinogen.
•Disease
•Deficiency:
Ariboflavinosis is the medical name for clinical riboflavin deficiency. Symptoms of riboflavin deficiency include sore throat, redness and swelling of the lining of the mouth and throat inflammation and redness of the tongue and a moist, scaly skin inflammation.

Niacin:
Niacin or vitamin B3 used by the body to form the nicotinamide coenzyme, NAD+. The term ‘niacin’ is often used to refer to nicotinic acid (pyridine-3-carboxylic acid) only, although other vitamers with a pyridine ring, including nicotinamide (pyridine-3-carboxamide) and nicotinamide riboside, also contribute to NAD+ formation.

Functions:
Niacin is extremely important for energy production. Niacin are responsible to produce usable energy from body’s protein, fats and carbohydrates. Niacin is important to process the fats in the body. Fatty acids and fat based hormones in the body need Niacin for their synthesis.

Sources:
Tuna, Mushrooms, Peanuts, Green Peas, Sweet potatoes, Corn, Pumpkins, Peaches, Oranges, Grapefruit and other citrus fruits.

Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA):
The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for vitamin B3 for adult men is 16 mg/day, for women 14, during pregnancy 18 and during breastfeeding 17 mg/day.

Benefits:
Lowers LDL Cholesterol
Increases HDL Cholesterol
Improves Skin Function
Toxicity:
Rapid heartbeat
Nausea and vomiting
Abdominal pain
Disease
Deficiency:
Niacin deficiency or pellagra may result from inadequate dietary intake of NAD precursors, including tryptophan.
Pantothenic acid:
Pantothenic acid, also known as vitamin B5. Pantothenic acid is found throughout all branches of life in the form of coenzyme A, a vital coenzyme in numerous chemical reactions.

Functions:
healthy skin, hair, and eyes
proper functioning of the nervous system and liver
making red blood cells, which carry oxygen throughout the body
sources:
It is found in most vegetables, including: broccoli, cabbage, white and sweet potatoes, mushrooms, nuts, beans, peas, meats, poultry and dairy products.

Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA):
No RDA of pantothenic acid has been established.

•Benefits:
Stimulates Hormones
Relieves Stress
Boosts Immune System
Toxicity:
Pantothenic acid is not known to be toxic in humans. The only adverse effect noted was diarrhea resulting from very high intakes of 10 to 20 g/day of calcium D-pantothenate.

Disease
Deficiency:
Pantothenic acid deficiency in humans cause headache, fatigue, insomnia, intestinal disturbances, and numbness and tingling of their hands and feet.

Biotin:
It is generally classified as a B-complex vitamin. Biotin is required by all organisms but can be synthesized by some strains of bacteria, yeast, mold, algae, and some plant species.

Functions:
It has an important role in converting food into energy. It functions as a cofactor in the intermediary metabolism of macronutrients, also involved in cell production and gene expression, contributes to the regulation of immunological & inflammatory functions in the body.
sources:
Liver and other meats, Egg yolk, Yeast, Nuts and seeds, Dairy, weet potato, Cauliflower.

Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA):
Only little is known regarding the amount of dietary biotin required to promote optimal health or prevent chronic disease/deficiency.

Life Stage Age Males: (mcg/day) Females: (mcg/day)
Infants 0–6 months 5 5
Children 1–3 years 8 8
Adolescents 14–18 years 25 25
Adults 19 years and older 30 30
Toxicity:
There is one case report of life-threatening eosinophilic pleuropericardial effusion in an elderly woman who took a combination of 10 mg/day of biotin and 300 mg/day of pantothenic acid for two months.
Disease
Deficiency:
Signs of overt biotin deficiency include hair loss and a scaly red rash around the eyes, nose, mouth, and genital area. Neurologic symptoms in adults have included depression, lethargy, hallucinations, numbness and tingling of the extremities, ataxia, and seizures.

Minerals:
Minerals are elements that originate in the Earth and cannot be made by living organisms. Minerals are inorganic substances required by the body in small amounts for a variety of different functions.

TYPES:
Macro minerals: These nutrients are known as major minerals, or macro-minerals, because you need more than 250 milligrams a day. Most major minerals actually have recommended intake levels above 1,000 milligrams per day.

Trace Minerals: are required in much smaller quantities fewer than 20 milligrams per day. Your body actually needs less than 1 milligram a day of most trace minerals
Macro minerals Trace minerals
Calcium iron
phosphorus chromium
magnesium manganese
Sodium chloride copper
potassium iodine
Sulfur zinc
fluoride
selenium
Macro minerals
Calcium:
About 99% of the calcium in the body is found in bones and teeth, while the other 1% is found in the blood and soft tissue.
Functions:
It’s essential for blood clotting.

It stabilizes blood pressure.

Facilitates the actual process of contraction of the muscle cell
Sources:
Milk, cheese and other dairy foods, green leafy vegetables – such as broccoli, cabbage,
Soya beans, tofu, soya drinks, nuts, bread, fish.

Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA):
Adults, age 19 to 50 years old need 1,000 milligrams of calcium daily. Women older than 50 and men aged 70 and beyond, should increase their daily intake to 1,200 milligrams.

Benefits:
Protects Cardiac Muscles
Prevents Colon Cancer
Regulates Blood Pressure
Toxicity:
Malignancy and primary hyperparathyroidism are the most common causes of elevated calcium concentrations in the blood. Mild hypercalcemia may result in loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, constipation, abdominal pain, fatigue, frequent urination and hypertension.

Disease
Deficiency:
A low blood calcium level usually implies abnormal parathyroid function. Other causes of deficiency include chronic kidney failure, vitamin D deficiency, and low blood magnesium levels.

Phosphorus:
Phosphorus is an essential mineral that is required by every cell in the body. Bound to oxygen in all biological systems, phosphorus is found as phosphate (PO43) in the body.
Functions:
formation of bones and teeth
Kidney function
Muscle contractions
Sources:
Sources of phosphorus include protein foods, such as meat, fish, eggs, milk, nuts and legumes, and also cereals and grains.

Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA):
0 to 6 months: 100 milligrams per day (mg/day), 7 to 12 months: 275 mg/day, 1 to 3 years: 460 mg/day, 4 to 8 years: 500 mg/day, 9 to 18 years: 1,250 mg, Adults: 700 mg/day.

Benefits:
Filter out waste in your kidneys.

Grow, maintain, and repair tissue and cells.

Produce DNA and RNA the body’s genetic building blocks.

Toxicity:
Several disorders characterized by serum phosphorus levels above normal (hyperphosphatemia) have been described. Hyperphosphatemia may also affect individuals with inappropriately low parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels.

Disease
Deficiency:
The effects of moderate to severe hypophosphatemia may include loss of appetite, anemia, muscle weakness, bone pain, rickets, osteomalacia and increased susceptibility to infection, numbness and tingling of the extremities, difficulty walking, and respiratory failure.

Magnesium:
Magnesium plays important roles in the structure and the function of the human body. The adult human body contains about 25 grams of magnesium. Over 60% of all the magnesium in the body is found in the skeleton, about 27% is found in muscle, 6% to 7% is found in other cells, and less than 1% is found outside.

Functions:
Carbohydrate Metabolism
Blood Pressure Regulation
Energy Transport
Sources:
Green leafy vegetables, Fruit (figs, avocado, banana and raspberries), Nuts and seeds, Legumes (black beans, chickpeas and kidney beans), Seafood.

Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA):
RDA for Children ages 1-3 is 80mg, 4-8yrs is 130mg, Males ages 9-13 is 240mg, 14-18yrs is 410mg, 19-30yrs is 400mg, 31to>70yrs is 420mg, For females ages 9-13 RDA is 240mg, 14-18 yrs is 360mg, 19-30 yrs is 310mg, 31 yrs to >70yrs RDA is 320mg.

Benefits:
Calcium absorption
Heart health
Relieving anxiety
Toxicity:
Adverse effects from excess magnesium have been observed with intakes of various magnesium salts. The initial symptom of excess magnesium supplementation. It cause impaired kidney function taking moderate doses of magnesium-containing laxatives or antacids
Disease
Deficiency:
The following conditions increase the risk of magnesium deficiency:
Gastrointestinal disorders: Prolonged diarrhea, Crohn’s disease, malabsorption syndromes
Renal disorders (magnesium wasting): Diabetes mellitus and long-term use of certain diuretics may result in increased urinary loss of magnesium.
Chronic alcoholism: Poor dietary intake, gastrointestinal problems, and increased urinary loss of magnesium.

Sodium (Chloride):
Salt (sodium chloride) is essential for life. Total body sodium in an average 70-kg person is of about 4,200 mmol (~100 g), of which 40% is found in bone and 60% in the fluid inside and outside of cells .
Functions:
absorb and transport nutrients
maintain blood pressurecontract and relax muscles
sources:
Chloride is found in table salt or sea salt as sodium chloride. It is also found in many vegetables include seaweed, rye, tomatoes, lettuce, celery, and olives. 
Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA):
The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) is 1.6g/70 mmol sodium (4g salt) per day for adults. Over 90% of the sodium in the diet is in the form of sodium chloride(salt); 1g of sodium is equivalent to 2.54g of salt.

Benefits:
Sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl-) are the principal ions in the extracellular compartment, which includes blood plasma, interstitial fluid (fluid between cells), and transcellular fluid (e.g., cerebrospinal fluid, joint fluid).
Toxicity:
Excessive intakes of sodium chloride lead to an increase in extracellular fluid volume as water is pulled from cells to maintain normal sodium concentrations outside of cells. Ingestion of large amounts of salt may lead to nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps. Hypernatremia, defined as serum sodium concentrations (Na+) ;145 mM, is much less common than hyponatremia and rarely caused by excessive sodium intake.

Disease
Deficiency:
Hyponatremia, defined as a serum sodium concentration (Na+) ;136 mmol/liter (mM), may result from increased fluid retention or increased sodium loss.
Potassium:
Potassium is an essential dietary mineral and electrolyte. Normal body function depends on tight regulation of potassium concentrations both inside and outside of cells.

Functions:
Maintenance of membrane potential
Cofactor for enzymes
acid-base balance
sources:
Leafy green vegetables such as spinach, parsley, lettuce, broccoli, peas, tomatoes, and potatoes, Fruits that contain this mineral include oranges and other citrus fruits, bananas, apples, avocados, raisins, and apricots, particularly dried. Whole grains, wheat germ, seeds, and nuts are high-potassium foods. Fish such as salmon, sardines, and cod.

Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA):
There is no specific RDA for potassium, though it is thought that at least 2-2.5 grams per day are needed, or about 0.8-1.5 grams per 1,000 calories consumed.

Benefits:
It is an electrolyte that counteracts the effects of sodium, helping to maintain consistent blood pressure. Potassium is also important for maintaining the balance of acids and bases in the body.

Toxicity:
Hyperkalemia occurs when potassium intake exceeds the capacity of the kidneys to eliminate it. Acute or chronic renal (kidney) failure, the use of potassium-sparing diuretics, and insufficient aldosterone secretion may result in the accumulation of excess potassium due to decreased urinary potassium excretion.

•Disease
•Deficiency:
Hypokalemia is most commonly a result of excessive loss of potassium. The symptoms include fatigue, muscle weakness and cramps, and intestinal paralysis, which may lead to bloating, constipation, and abdominal pain.
Sulfur:
Sulfur represents about 0.25 percent of our total body weight, similar to potassium. Sulfur is present in four amino acids: methionine, an essential amino acid. Sulfur is also present in two B vitamins, thiamine and biotin.

Functions:
Sulfur performs a number of functions in enzyme reactions and protein synthesis. It is necessary for formation of collagen. Sulfur is important to cellular respiration.

Sources:
Meats, fish, poultry, eggs, milk, and legumes , onions, garlic, cabbage, turnips, Nuts.

Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA):
There is no specific RDA for sulfur. About 850 mg. are thought to be needed for basic turnover of sulfur in the body.

Benefits:
Sulfur seems to have antibacterial effects against the bacteria that cause acne. It also might help promote the loosening and shedding of skin.

Toxicity:
There is minimal reason for concern about either toxicity or deficiency of sulfur in the body. No clearly defined symptoms exist with either state.

Disease
Deficiency:
Sulfur deficiency is more common when foods are grown in sulfur-depleted soil, with low-protein diets, or with a lack of intestinal bacteria, though none of these seems to cause any problems in regard to sulfur functions and metabolism.

Trace minerals:
Iron:
It is a key element in the metabolism of all living organisms. Iron exists in two biologically relevant oxidation states: the ferrous form (Fe2+) and the ferric form (Fe3+).
Functions:
Electron transport
energy metabolism
DNA replication and repair
Sources:
Beans, lentils, Tofu, Baked potatoes, Cashews, Dark green leafy vegetables, Fortified breakfast cereals, Whole-grain and enriched breads.

Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA):
The average daily iron intake from foods and supplements is 13.7–15.1 mg/day in children aged 2–11 years, 16.3 mg/day in children and teens aged 12–19 years, and 19.3–20.5 mg/day in men and 17.0–18.9 mg/day in women older than 19.
Benefits:
Iron helps to preserve many vital functions in the body, including general energy and focus, gastrointestinal processes, the immune system, and the regulation of body temperature.

Toxicity:
Acute toxicity may occur with iron doses of 20 to 60 mg/kg of body weight. Within one to six hours of ingestion, symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, tarry stools, lethargy, weak and rapid pulse, low blood pressure, fever, difficulty breathing, and coma.

Disease
Deficiency:
Storage iron depletion
Early functional iron deficiency
Iron-deficiency anemia
Chromium:
The most stable oxidation state of chromium in biological systems is trivalent chromium (Cr3+), which forms relatively inert complexes with proteins and nucleic acids.

Functions:
Chromium is important in the metabolism of fats and carbohydrates. It is important for brain function and other body processes. Chromium also aids in insulin action and glucose metabolism.

Sources:
Beef, Liver, Eggs, Chicken, Oysters, Wheat, Broccoli
Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA):
Chromium RDA level have not been established.
Benefits:
It may be effective at improving the body’s response to insulin or lowering blood sugar in those with diabetes. It may help reduce hunger, cravings and binge eating.

Toxicity:
Hexavalent chromium is a recognized carcinogen. Exposure to hexavalent chromium in dust has been associated with an increased incidence of lung cancer and is known to cause inflammation of the skin.

Disease
Deficiency:
Urinary chromium loss was reportedly increased by endurance exercise in male runners, suggesting that chromium needs may be greater in individuals who exercise regularly.

Manganese:
Manganese is a mineral element that is both nutritionally essential and potentially toxic.
Functions:
Antioxidant
Bone development
Wound healing
•Sources:
Rich sources of manganese include whole grains, nuts, leafy vegetables, and teas.

Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA):
infants birth to 6 months, 3 mcg; 7 to 12 months, 600 mcg; children 1 to 3 years, 1.2 mg; 4 to 8 years 1.5 mg; boys 9 to 13 years, 1.9 mg; boys 14 to 18 years, 2.2 mg; girls 9 to 18 years, 1.6 mg; men age 19 and older, 2.3 mg; women 19 and older.

Benefits:
Controls Diabetes
Boosts Metabolism
Reduces Inflammation
Toxicity:
Manganese toxicity can result in a permanent neurological disorder known as manganese with symptoms that include tremors, difficulty walking, and facial muscle spasms.
•Disease
•Deficiency:
Signs of manganese deficiency include impaired growth, impaired reproductive function, skeletal abnormalities, impaired glucose tolerance, and altered carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.

Copper:
Copper (Cu) is an essential trace element for humans and animals. In the body, copper shifts between the cuprous (Cu1+) and cupric (Cu2+) forms, though the majority of the body’s copper is in the Cu2+ form.
Functions:
Energy production
Iron metabolism
Melanin formation
Sources:
Copper is found in a wide variety of foods and is most plentiful in organ meats, shellfish, nuts, and seeds. Wheat-bran cereals and whole-grain products are also good sources of copper.

Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA):
The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for adult men and women is 900 ?g/day.

Benefits:
Copper is a possible treatment for Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease.

Toxicity:
Acute copper poisoning has occurred through the contamination of beverages by storage in copper-containing containers, as well as from contaminated water supplies. Symptoms of acute copper toxicity include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea; such symptoms help prevent additional ingestion and absorption of copper.
Disease
Deficiency:
Hypocupremia is observed in genetic disorders of copper metabolism, such as aceruloplasminemia.

Iodine:
Iodine (I), a non-metallic trace element, is required by humans for the synthesis of thyroid hormones. Most of the Earth’s iodine, in the form of the iodide ion (I).

Functions:
keep a healthy body weight
growth and develop
controls heart rate
Sources:
Iodine is often found in seaweed and can be mined in the form of sodium iodate and sodium periodate.

Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA):
The Institute of Medicine has set the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for iodine in adult men and women at 150 ?g per day.
•Benefits:
Iodine is needed to keep your thyroid functioning properly and secreting the thyroid hormone. This hormone helps the body maintain a healthy temperature and utilize energy, in addition to keeping the heart, brain, muscles properly.

•Toxicity:
Acute iodine poisoning is rare and usually occurs only with doses of many grams. Symptoms of acute iodine poisoning include burning of the mouth, throat, and stomach, fever, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, a weak pulse, cyanosis, and coma.

Disease
Deficiency:
Chronic iodine deficiency can result in a dramatic reduction of the iodine content in the thyroid well below 1 mg . The spectrum of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) includes mental retardation, hypothyroidism, goiter, and varying degrees of other growth and developmental abnormalities.

Zinc:
The significance of zinc in human nutrition and public health was recognized relatively recently.

Functions:
Zinc is found in cells throughout the body. It is needed for the body’s defensive system to properly work. It plays a role in cell division, cell growth, wound healing, and the breakdown of carbohydrates. Zinc is also needed for the senses of smell and taste.

Sources:
Seafood, lean meats and poultry, eggs, legumes, nuts, seeds, and soy products. Oysters, red meat, and poultry are excellent sources of zinc. Baked beans, chickpeas, and nuts.

Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA):
boys and men age 14 and older, 11 mg/day; women 19 and older, 8 mg/day; pregnant women 14 to 18, 13 mg/day; pregnant women 19 and older, 11 mg/day.

Benefits:
It is needed for immune function, wound healing, blood clotting, and thyroid function.

Toxicity:
Acute zinc toxicity have occurred as a result of the consumption of food or beverages contaminated with zinc released from galvanized containers. Signs of acute zinc toxicity are abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting.

Disease
Deficiency:
Severe zinc deficiency was derived from the study of individuals born with acrodermatitis enteropathica, a genetic disorder resulting from the impaired uptake and transport of zinc. The symptoms of severe zinc deficiency include the characteristic skin rashes, chronic and severe diarrhea, immune system deficiencies, impaired wound healing, impaired taste sensation, night blindness, swelling and clouding of the corneas, and behavioral disturbances.

Fluoride:
Fluorine occurs naturally as the negatively charged ion, fluoride (F-). About 95% of the total body fluoride is found in bones and teeth.

Functions:
Fluorine is essential for the normal mineralization of bones and the formation of dental enamel. Thus 96% of the Fluoride in the body is found in bones and teeth.

Sources:
The Fluorine is found in traces in water, and food. Sea food, cheese, and tea are good sources.

Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA):
From diet is 0.25 mg for children and 1.5 to 4.0 mg for adults. On an average we ingest about 1 mg of Fluoride daily from drinking water, and 0.25-0.35 mg from the diet. The drinking water should not contain more than 1-2 mg of Fluoride per litre.

Benefits:
low down the loss of minerals from tooth enamel
reverse early signs of tooth decay
prevent the growth of harmful oral bacteria
Toxicity:
Excessive exposure to fluoride has been linked to a number of health issues.

Dental fluorosis
Thyroid problems
Neurological problem
•Disease
•Deficiency:
In humans, the only clear effect of inadequate fluoride intake is an increased risk of dental caries (tooth decay) for individuals of all ages.

Selenium:
During protein synthesis (translation), the amino acid selenocysteine is incorporated into elongating proteins at very specific locations in the amino acid sequence in order to form functional selenoproteins.

Functions:
Selenium is needed for the production of selenoproteins, which are enzymes that work as antioxidants that protect the cells in your body from free radical damage, Powerful Antioxidant.

Sources:
seafood, lean meats and poultry, eggs, legumes (beans and peas), nuts, seeds, and soy products. Pork, beef, turkey, chicken, fish, shellfish, and eggs contain high amounts of selenium
Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA):
The recommended dietary allowance of selenium is the same for men and women. After age 14 and throughout adulthood, you need 55 micrograms.

Benefits:
Protect Against Heart Disease
Prevent Mental Decline
Important for Thyroid Health
•Toxicity:
Acute and fatal toxicities have occurred with accidental or suicidal ingestion of gram quantities of selenium. Symptoms may include gastrointestinal disturbances, skin rashes, a garlic breath odor, fatigue, irritability, and neurologic disorders.

Disease
Deficiency:
Insufficient selenium intake may negatively affect the activity of several selenium-responsive enzymes. Even when severe, isolated selenium deficiency does not usually result in obvious clinical illness.

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